Wolfgang G. Junger

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Injury causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is clinically much like sepsis. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activate innate immunocytes through pattern recognition receptors. Similarly, cellular injury can release endogenous 'damage'-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that activate innate immunity.(More)
Cells must amplify external signals to orient and migrate in chemotactic gradient fields. We find that human neutrophils release adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the leading edge of the cell surface to amplify chemotactic signals and direct cell orientation by feedback through P2Y2 nucleotide receptors. Neutrophils rapidly hydrolyze released ATP to(More)
Stimulation of almost all mammalian cell types leads to the release of cellular ATP and autocrine feedback through a diverse array of purinergic receptors. Depending on the types of purinergic receptors that are involved, autocrine signalling can promote or inhibit cell activation and fine-tune functional responses. Recent work has shown that autocrine(More)
T-cell activation requires the influx of extracellular calcium, although mechanistic details regarding such activation are not fully defined. Here, we show that P2X(7) receptors play a key role in calcium influx and downstream signaling events associated with the activation of T cells. By real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we find that Jurkat T cells(More)
Excessive neutrophil activation causes posttraumatic complications, which may be reduced with hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation. We tested if this is because of modulated neutrophil function by HS. Clinically relevant hypertonicity (10-25 mM) suppressed degranulation and superoxide formation in response to fMLP and blocked the activation of the mitogen(More)
Engagement of T cells with antigen-presenting cells requires T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation at the immune synapse. We previously reported that TCR stimulation induces the release of cellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) that regulates T-cell activation. Here we tested the roles of pannexin-1 hemichannels, which have been implicated in ATP release, and(More)
Efficient activation of neutrophils is a key requirement for effective immune responses. We found that neutrophils released cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in response to exogenous stimuli such as formylated bacterial peptides and inflammatory mediators that activated Fcgamma, interleukin-8, C5a complement, and leukotriene B(4) receptors. Stimulation(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypertonic saline resuscitation reduces tissue damage by inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Hypertonic saline triggers polymorphonuclear neutrophils to release adenosine triphosphate that is converted to adenosine, inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophils through A2a adenosine receptors. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils also express A3(More)
Hypertonic stress (HS) can alter the function of mammalian cells. We have reported that HS enhances differentiated responses of T cells by increasing their ability to produce interleukin (IL)-2, a finding of clinical interest because hypertonic infusions may modulate immune function in patients. HS shrinks cells and mechanically deforms membranes, which(More)
Hypertonic saline (HTS) resuscitation improves outcome after trauma. We studied the effect of HTS on immune function. In vitro T-cell proliferation of human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was doubled at 25 mM increased extracellular Na+ concentrations. Further increased hypertonicity (more than 40 mM with human cells, and 80 mM with(More)