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The classical method of metabolic engineering, identifying a rate-determining step in a pathway and alleviating the bottleneck by enzyme overexpression, has motivated much research but has enjoyed only limited practical success. Intervention of other limiting steps, of counter-balancing regulation, and of unknown coupled pathways often confounds this direct(More)
Virus like particles (VLPs) are known to induce potent B cell responses in the absence of adjuvants. Moreover, epitope-specific antibody responses may be induced by VLPs that contain peptides inserted in their immunodominant regions. However, due to steric problems, the size of the peptides capable of being incorporated into VLPs while still permitting(More)
Nicotine is the principal addictive component in tobacco, and following uptake acts in the central nervous system. The smoking-cessation efforts of most smokers fail because a single slip often delivers sufficient nicotine to the brain to reinstate the drug-seeking behaviour. Blocking nicotine from entering the brain by induction of specific antibodies may(More)
Engineering of the cell cycle can be an effective means for bypassing growth factor requirements of animal cells. Cloned human E2F-1 from Nalm 6 cells was subcloned into pRc/CMV and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Ten stable transfectant clones isolated from cells cultured under neomycin-resistance selection pressure all expressed(More)
Proliferation of T cells is important for the expansion of specific T cell clones during immune responses. In addition, for the establishment of protective immunity against viruses, bacteria, and tumors, the expanded T cells must differentiate into effector T cells. Here we show that effector T cell generation is driven by activation of APCs and duration of(More)
Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various(More)
DNA rich in nonmethylated CG motifs (CpGs) greatly facilitates induction of immune responses against coadministered Ags. CpGs are therefore among the most promising adjuvants known to date. Nevertheless, CpGs are characterized by two drawbacks. They have unfavorable pharmacokinetics and may exhibit systemic side effects, including splenomegaly. We show in(More)
BACKGROUND Allergen-specific TH2 responses contribute to the development of allergic asthma. Their increase may be due to a reduced early exposure to environmental pathogens, which induces a TH1 response, and thereby suppresses the allergic TH2 response. QbG10 (bacteriophage Qbeta-derived virus-like particle with CpG-motif G10 inside), a novel Toll-like(More)
Induction of protective immune responses with recombinant antigens is a major challenge for the vaccine industry. Here we present a molecular assembly system that renders antigens of choice highly repetitive. Using this method, efficient antibody responses may be induced in the absence of adjuvants resulting in protection from viral infection and allergic(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic symptoms are generally caused by exposure to substances to which people have become sensitized. Associated with this is an 'unbalanced' Th1/Th2 immune response with T cell responses skewed towards the production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, 5, and 13 and high levels of IgE antibodies. Current immune modulating therapies require the use of(More)