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The classical method of metabolic engineering, identifying a rate-determining step in a pathway and alleviating the bottleneck by enzyme overexpression, has motivated much research but has enjoyed only limited practical success. Intervention of other limiting steps, of counter-balancing regulation, and of unknown coupled pathways often confounds this direct(More)
Nicotine is the principal addictive component in tobacco, and following uptake acts in the central nervous system. The smoking-cessation efforts of most smokers fail because a single slip often delivers sufficient nicotine to the brain to reinstate the drug-seeking behaviour. Blocking nicotine from entering the brain by induction of specific antibodies may(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic symptoms are generally caused by exposure to substances to which people have become sensitized. Associated with this is an 'unbalanced' Th1/Th2 immune response with T cell responses skewed towards the production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, 5, and 13 and high levels of IgE antibodies. Current immune modulating therapies require the use of(More)
Virus like particles (VLPs) are known to induce potent B cell responses in the absence of adjuvants. Moreover, epitope-specific antibody responses may be induced by VLPs that contain peptides inserted in their immunodominant regions. However, due to steric problems, the size of the peptides capable of being incorporated into VLPs while still permitting(More)
We constructed stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines which conditionally and coordinately express the model product gene secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and one of the cytostatic genes p21, p27, and p53175P, a p53 mutant deficient in apoptotic but not cell-cycle arrest function. The use of dicistronic expression technology allowed the(More)
Engineering of the cell cycle can be an effective means for bypassing growth factor requirements of animal cells. Cloned human E2F-1 from Nalm 6 cells was subcloned into pRc/CMV and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Ten stable transfectant clones isolated from cells cultured under neomycin-resistance selection pressure all expressed(More)
Exogenous growth factors normally required in cell culture activate cell proliferation via the molecular controls of cell-cycle progression. Highly differing influences of mitogenic stimulation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by insulin and basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF) have been clearly observed in a defined protein-free medium. CHO K1 cells(More)
The production and study of toxic proteins requires inducible expression systems with low basal level expression and high inducibility. Here, we describe bioprocess applications of the pCytTS temperature-regulatable Sindbis virus replicon-based expression system. We used green fluorescent protein as a marker protein to optimize the selection of stable(More)
Proliferation of T cells is important for the expansion of specific T cell clones during immune responses. In addition, for the establishment of protective immunity against viruses, bacteria, and tumors, the expanded T cells must differentiate into effector T cells. Here we show that effector T cell generation is driven by activation of APCs and duration of(More)
Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various(More)