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A fundamental step in visual pattern recognition is the establishment of relations between spatially separate features. Recently, we have shown that neurons in the cat visual cortex have oscillatory responses in the range 40-60 Hz (refs 1, 2) which occur in synchrony for cells in a functional column and are tightly correlated with a local oscillatory field(More)
In areas 17 and 18 of the cat visual cortex the firing probability of neurons, in response to the presentation of optimally aligned light bars within their receptive field, oscillates with a peak frequency near 40 Hz. The neuronal firing pattern is tightly correlated with the phase and amplitude of an oscillatory local field potential recorded through the(More)
Echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor activation changes of brain areas while subjects viewed apparent motion stimuli and while they were engaged in motion imagery. Human cortical areas MT (V5) and MST were the first areas of the 'dorsal' processing stream which responded with a clear increase in signal intensity to apparent(More)
Classical theories of sensory processing view the brain as a passive, stimulus-driven device. By contrast, more recent approaches emphasize the constructive nature of perception, viewing it as an active and highly selective process. Indeed, there is ample evidence that the processing of stimuli is controlled by top-down influences that strongly shape the(More)
In many brain areas, including the cerebellar cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, striatum and nucleus accumbens, brief activation of an excitatory pathway can produce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. In most preparations, induction of LTD has been shown to require a minimum level of postsynaptic depolarization and a rise in the(More)
In the hippocampus and neocortex, high-frequency (tetanic) stimulation of an afferent pathway leads to long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. In the hippocampus it has recently been shown that long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory transmission can also be induced by certain combinations of synaptic activation. In most hippocampal and all(More)
Activated neuronal groups typically engage in rhythmic synchronization in the gamma-frequency range (30-100 Hz). Experimental and modeling studies demonstrate that each gamma cycle is framed by synchronized spiking of inhibitory interneurons. Here, we review evidence suggesting that the resulting rhythmic network inhibition interacts with excitatory input(More)
Functional imaging methods monitor neural activity by measuring hemodynamic signals. These are more closely related to local field potentials (LFPs) than to action potentials. We simultaneously recorded electrical and hemodynamic responses in the cat visual cortex. Increasing stimulus strength enhanced spiking activity, high-frequency LFP oscillations, and(More)