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abstract The ryanodine receptor (RyR)/Ca 2 ϩ release channel is an essential component of excitation–con-traction coupling in striated muscle cells. To study the function and regulation of the Ca 2 ϩ release channel, we tested the effect of caffeine on the full-length and carboxyl-terminal portion of skeletal muscle RyR expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary(More)
Confocal microscopy of fluo-4 fluorescence in pressurized rat mesenteric small arteries subjected to low-frequency electrical field stimulation revealed Ca2+ transients in perivascular nerves and novel, spatially localized Ca2+ transients in adjacent smooth muscle cells. These muscle Ca2+ transients occur with a very brief latency to the stimulus pulse(More)
We used post-transcriptional gene silencing (with small interfering RNA) to examine specifically the roles of Type 1 inositol tris-phosphate receptors (InsP(3)R1) and transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in Ca(2+) oscillations induced by arginine vasopressin (AVP), a typical G-protein coupled receptor agonist. Ca(2+) oscillations were observed in(More)
Contraction of small arteries is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, but the Ca2+ transients during neurally stimulated contraction of intact small arteries have not yet been recorded. We loaded rat mesenteric small arteries with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-4 and mounted them in a myograph that permitted simultaneous (i) high-speed confocal(More)
The possible roles of endothelial intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), nitric oxide (NO), arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels in adrenergically induced vasomotion were examined in pressurized rat mesenteric arteries. Removal of the endothelium or buffering [Ca(2+)](i) selectively in endothelial cells(More)
The effects of caffeine on tension, membrane potential, membrane currents, and intracellular [Ca2+], measured as the light emitted by the Ca2+-activated photoprotein aequorin, were studied in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. An initial, transient, positive inotropic effect of caffeine was accompanied by a transient increase in the second component of the(More)
Myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction in peripheral resistance arteries and thus increase peripheral resistance. This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of post-MI-related dysfunctional dilatation of peripheral resistance arteries and, furthermore, to examine whether exercise may restore(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We sought to demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, via sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling, has the potential to alter cochlear blood flow and thus, cause ischemic hearing loss. METHODS We performed intravital fluorescence microscopy to measure blood flow and capillary diameter in anesthetized guinea pigs. To measure(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Determining the role of vascular receptors in vivo is difficult and not readily accomplished by systemic application of antagonists or genetic manipulations. Here we used intravital microscopy to measure the contributions of sympathetic receptors, particularly α1-adrenoceptor subtypes, to contractile activation of femoral artery in(More)
The functions of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptors [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)Rs] in adrenergically activated contractions of pressurized rat mesenteric small arteries were investigated. Caffeine (20 mM) but not phenylephrine (PE; 10 microM) facilitated the depletion of smooth muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) stores by(More)