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Melioidosis is a serious community-acquired infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. A prospective cohort study identified 2,243 patients admitted to Sappasithiprasong Hospital in northeast Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis between 1997 and 2006. These data were used to calculate an average(More)
An open randomised trial was conducted to compare ceftazidime (120 mg/kg/day) with "conventional therapy" (chloramphenicol 100 mg/kg/day, doxycycline 4 mg/kg/day, trimethoprim 10 mg/kg/day, and sulphamethoxazole 50 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of severe melioidosis. A paired restricted sequential trial designed to detect a reduction in mortality from 80 to(More)
A case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in northeastern Thailand to identify risk factors for melioidosis and bacteremic melioidosis. Cases were patients with culture-proven melioidosis, and there were two types of controls (those with infections, i.e., with community-acquired septicemia caused by other bacteria, and those without infection,(More)
Patients suffering from serious bacterial infection present to the hospital after early inflammatory events, such as release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), have been initiated. The role of other cytokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), a neutrophil chemoattractant and activator, in the pathophysiology of human sepsis is not well characterized, and there(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with diabetes mellitus are more prone to bacterial sepsis, but there are conflicting data on whether outcomes are worse in diabetics after presentation with sepsis. Glyburide is an oral hypoglycemic agent used to treat diabetes mellitus. This K(ATP)-channel blocker and broad-spectrum ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter inhibitor has(More)
Extracellular release of granzymes is considered to reflect the involvement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells in various disease states. To obtain insight into granzyme release during bacterial infection, granzyme levels were measured during experimental human endotoxemia and in patients with melioidosis, a severe infection due to gram-negative(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig) are related CXC chemokines which bind to the CXCR3 receptor and specifically target activated T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. The production of IP-10 and Mig by various cell types in vitro is strongly dependent on IFN-gamma. To determine whether(More)
A prospective, open, randomized, comparative treatment trial was conducted to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the conventional four-drug combination (chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline) with that of doxycycline alone in oral maintenance treatment of melioidosis. Adult Thai patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis were(More)
OBJECTIVES Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat melioidosis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method is commonly used in melioidosis-endemic areas, but may overestimate resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed disc diffusion and Etest on isolates from the first positive(More)
BACKGROUND Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is difficult to cure. Antimicrobial treatment comprises intravenous drugs for at least 10 days, followed by oral drugs for at least 12 weeks. The standard oral regimen based on trial evidence is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaxole (TMP-SMX) plus(More)