Winnie de Bruyn

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The present study investigated the vocal capacities of adult men who had undergone total laryngectomy. Esophageal (N = 10) and tracheoesophageal (N = 10) speakers were compared for the parameters maximum phonation time (MPT), maximum number of syllables that could be spoken on one air intake (SYLLS), dynamic range (DYN), frequency range (FREQ), and maximum(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the intelligibility of two types of alaryngeal speech commonly used after total laryngectomy. Four male oesophageal speakers and four male tracheo-oesophageal speakers read a series of monosyllabic words, multisyllabic words and sentences. The monosyllabic word list consisted of several minimal pairs for each of(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmaceutical expenditure is currently rising by 16% per annum in China, greater in recent years. Initiatives to moderate growth include drug pricing regulations, essential medicine lists and encouraging generic prescribing. These are principally concentrated in hospitals, which currently account for over 80% of total pharmaceutical expenditure.(More)
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