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IL-lp-converting enzyme (ICE) cleaves pro-IL-lp to generate mature IL-lp. ICE is homologous to other proteins that have been implicated in apoptosis, including CED-3 and Nedd-2/Ich-1. We generated ICE-deficient mice and observed that they are overtly normal but have a major defect in the production of mature IL-1I~ after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide.(More)
Recent studies have shown that protein kinase C (PKC) ␦ is proteolytically activated at the onset of apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents, tumor necrosis factor, and anti-Fas anti-body. However, the relationship of PKC ␦ cleavage to induction of apoptosis is unknown. The present studies demonstrate that full-length PKC ␦ is cleaved at DMQD 330 N to a(More)
Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is a crucial intermediate in the replication of hepadnaviruses. We inhibited the replication of duck hepatitis B virus in congenitally infected ducks with a combination of lamivudine and a dideoxyguanosine prodrug. Inhibition of viral replication should prevent renewal of the cccDNA pool, and its decay was measured in(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a low prevalence in Hong Kong. OBJECTIVE To reassess MS prevalence in Hong Kong and to examine associated risk factors for relapsing-remitting type MS patients to reach Kurtzke's Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 6.0, i.e. when walking aid was needed. DESIGN Retrospective observational study on MS patients(More)
Previous work using the in vitro bovine lens as a model has shown a correlation between toxicity and lens optical function and showed much higher sensitivity in detecting irritancy of several surfactants at much lower concentrations than the Draize score. In the current study, cultured bovine lenses were used to study the effects of the surfactant sodium(More)
The human receptor for complement fragments C3b and C4b (complement receptor type I, CR1) is found on erythrocytes, peripheral blood leukocytes, glomerular podocytes, and follicular dendritic cells and has an important role in the processing and clearance of C3b/C4b-coated microorganisms and immune complexes (1, 2). CR 1 also acts as a cofactor for the(More)
Ultrasound biomicroscopy produces real-time two-dimensional images of ocular structures measured non-invasively. Given recent work which shows that lenses from myopic eyes show shorter focal lengths and reduced accommodative amplitudes compared with controls, this study was undertaken to determine the structural characteristics of the anterior segment of(More)
BACKGROUND Enteric Escherichia coli survives the highly acidic environment of the stomach through multiple acid resistance (AR) mechanisms. The most effective system, AR2, decarboxylates externally-derived glutamate to remove cytoplasmic protons and excrete GABA. The first described system, AR1, does not require an external amino acid. Its mechanism has not(More)
Paper diagnostics have successfully been employed to detect the presence of antigens or small molecules in clinical samples through immunoassays; however, the detection of many disease targets relies on the much higher sensitivity and specificity achieved via nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). The steps involved in NAAT have recently begun to be(More)
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