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Three-dimensional (3D) structural information on many length scales is of central importance in biological research. Excellent methods exist to obtain structures of molecules at atomic, organelles at electron microscopic, and tissue at light-microscopic resolution. A gap exists, however, when 3D tissue structure needs to be reconstructed over hundreds of(More)
It is becoming increasingly clear that single cortical neurons encode complex and behaviorally relevant signals, but efficient means to study gene functions in small networks and single neurons in vivo are still lacking. Here, we establish a method for genetic manipulation and subsequent phenotypic analysis of individual cortical neurons in vivo. First,(More)
Neurons of the mammalian CNS are thought to originate from progenitors dividing at the apical surface of the neuroepithelium. Here we use mouse embryos expressing GFP from the Tis21 locus, a gene expressed throughout the neural tube in most, if not all, neuron-generating progenitors, to specifically reveal the cell divisions that produce CNS neurons. In(More)
The detection of image motion is fundamental to vision. In many species, unique classes of retinal ganglion cells selectively respond to visual stimuli that move in specific directions. It is not known which retinal cell first performs the neural computations that give rise to directional selectivity in the ganglion cell. A prominent candidate has been an(More)
The proper connectivity between neurons is essential for the implementation of the algorithms used in neural computations, such as the detection of directed motion by the retina. The analysis of neuronal connectivity is possible with electron microscopy, but technological limitations have impeded the acquisition of high-resolution data on a large enough(More)
Comprehensive high-resolution structural maps are central to functional exploration and understanding in biology. For the nervous system, in which high resolution and large spatial extent are both needed, such maps are scarce as they challenge data acquisition and analysis capabilities. Here we present for the mouse inner plexiform layer--the main(More)
With few exceptions biological tissues strongly scatter light, making high-resolution deep imaging impossible for traditional-including confocal-fluorescence microscopy. Nonlinear optical microscopy, in particular two photon-excited fluorescence microscopy, has overcome this limitation, providing large depth penetration mainly because even multiply(More)
How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, here we reconstruct Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of 'citizen neuroscientists'. On the basis of(More)
Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs) playing a major role. SACs generate larger dendritic Ca(2+) signals when motion is from their somata towards their dendritic tips than for motion in the opposite direction. To study the mechanisms underlying the computation of direction selectivity (DS) in SAC(More)
The functional architecture of adult cerebral cortex retains a capacity for experience-dependent change. This is seen following focal binocular lesions, which induce rapid changes in receptive field size and position. To follow the dynamics of the circuitry underlying these changes, we imaged the intrinsic long-range horizontal connections within the lesion(More)