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OBJECTIVES To compare the efficacy of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) abacavir, zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine (ddI), and stavudine (d4T) to inhibit viral replication in brain macrophages. A severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) was used to monitor spreading viral infection(More)
INTRODUCTION First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure often results from the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Three patterns, including thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), 69 Insertion (69Ins) and the Q151M complex, are associated with resistance to multiple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and may compromise(More)
New evidence has emerged regarding when to commence antiretroviral therapy (ART), optimal treatment regimens, management of HIV co-infection with opportunistic infections, and management of ART failure. The 2014 guidelines were developed by the collaborations of the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) and the Thai AIDS Society(More)
INTRODUCTION Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been rapidly scaled up in Asia, most HIV-positive patients in the region still present with late-stage HIV disease. We aimed to determine trends of pre-ART CD4 levels over time in Asian HIV-positive patients and to determine factors associated with late ART initiation. METHODS Data from two regional(More)
BACKGROUND We performed a nested case-control study of Thai women prescribed nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine if development of rash or hepatotoxicity during the first 24 weeks of treatment is associated with plasma nevirapine concentrations. METHOD From May 2005-January 2007, we enrolled 217 women initiating nevirapine-based ART(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS Patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database receiving first-line ART for ≥ 6 months were included. Predictors of treatment failure and treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-naïve Asian(More)
BACKGROUND We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody(More)
This retrospective study was performed to explore the pattern of adult HIV-infected patients admitted to Siriraj Hospital from January 2003 to December 2003 and estimated the economic losses of these patients. Two hundred and forty four medical records were available for review. The proportion of male to female was 2 to 1. Mean age of patients was 36.64 +/-(More)
Accurate interpretation of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing is challenging, yet important for patient care. We compared genotyping interpretation, based on the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database (Stanford HIVdb), and virtual phenotyping, based on the Janssen Diagnostics BVBA’s vircoTYPE™ HIV-1, and investigated their level of agreement in(More)