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There is only one previous report on the first-contact incidence of schizophrenia among immigrants in the Netherlands, which was based on a small number of cases, particularly for second generation immigrants. We conducted another two-year first-contact incidence study in the same geographical area, combined the data of both studies and compared risks over(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Part of this association may be explained by genotype-environment interaction, and part of it by genotype-environment correlation. The latter issue has not been explored. We investigated whether cannabis use is associated with schizophrenia, and whether gene-environment correlation contributes(More)
BACKGROUND It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to which they perceive discrimination based on race or ethnicity. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic groups was higher when these groups(More)
The incidence of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is very high among several ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands, and is most increased for Moroccans. This study compared symptoms at first treatment contact for a psychotic disorder between 117 native Dutch and 165 ethnic minority patients from Morocco, Surinam, Turkey, other non-Western(More)
OBJECTIVES The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine whether the increased risk for developing a psychotic disorder among immigrants is related to their age at the time of migration. METHOD In a 7-year first-contact incidence study, immigrants to the Netherlands and Dutch citizens, ages 15-54 years, who made a first contact with a physician for a suspected(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexual minorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexual minorities are at increased risk for psychotic symptoms and to explore(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This article reviews the recent literature about migration, ethnic minority position and the risk of psychotic disorders. RECENT FINDINGS A meta-analysis found that both first and second-generation migrants have on average a two-fold increase in risk for psychotic disorders. In the Netherlands, the risk was most elevated for individuals(More)
Initial studies with healthy subjects and individuals with high risk for psychosis have suggested that virtual reality (VR) environments may be used to investigate social and psychological mechanisms of psychosis. One small study reported that VR can safely be used in individuals with current persecutory delusions. The present pilot study investigated the(More)