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This review summarises the results and discussions of an UNESCO-MCBN supported symposium on oxidative stress and its role in the onset and progression of diabetes. There is convincing experimental and clinical evidence that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROI) is increased in both types of diabetes and that the onset of diabetes is closely(More)
Drugs containing strong basic nitrogen functional groups can be N-oxygenated to genotoxic products. While the reduction of such products is of considerable toxicological significance, most in vitro studies have focused on oxygen-sensitive reductase systems. However, an oxygen-insensitive microsomal hydroxylamine reductase consisting of NADH, cytochrome b5,(More)
Short-term trials with the antioxidant thioctic acid (TA) appear to improve neuropathic symptoms in diabetic patients, but the long-term response remains to be established. Therefore, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy were randomly assigned to three treatment regimens: (1) 2 x 600(mg of TA (TA 1200), (2) 600)mg of TA plus(More)
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor, elongation factor 1 beta gamma (EF-1 beta gamma) has been purified from Artemia cysts using an improved method. The protein consists of two distinct polypeptides with relative molecular masses of 26,000 (EF-1 beta) and 46,000 (EF-1 gamma). A nucleoside diphosphate phosphotransferase activity often found in EF-1 beta(More)
The eukaryotic elongation factor-1 (EF-1) consists of four subunits, EF-1 alpha, EF-1 beta, EF-1 gamma and EF-1 delta which induce efficient transfer of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome. In this process EF-1 alpha.GTP acts as the carrier of the aminoacyl-tRNA on its way to the ribosome. After release of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome under concomitant(More)
In the three-dimensional model of adenylate kinase, the phosphate-binding site for AMP and ATP has been identified [Pai, E.F. et al. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 114, 37--45]. In this region one can distinguish a sequence glycine XXXX glycinelysine. The same sequence is found in many other mononucleotide-binding proteins including elongation factors and oncogenic(More)
The activation of p21ras by receptor tyrosine kinases involves the translocation of the growth factor receptor bound protein 2-mammalian son of sevenless protein (Grb2-SOS) complex to the plasma membrane where p21ras is localized. Insulin receptors induce p21ras-GTP formation by two possible mechanisms: tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate(More)
The primary structure of the alpha subunit of elongation factor 1 (EF-1 alpha) from human MOLT 4 cells was determined by cDNA sequencing. The data show that the conservation of the amino acid sequence is more than 80% when compared with yeast and Artemia EF-1 alpha. An inventory of amino acid sequences around the guanine-nucleotide-binding site in(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes commonly leads to long-term complications such as cataract. This study investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LPA) and its gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) conjugate on cataract development in diabetic sand rats. METHODS Two separate experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, sand rats were fed a "high-energy" diet (70% starch), an(More)
We have previously shown that a homozygous mutation encoding a substitution of proline for leucine at position 233 in the insulin receptor is linked with the syndrome of leprechaunism, being a lethal form of insulin resistance in newborn children. Specific binding of insulin and insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor are nearly(More)