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An effective way of stimulating the mucosal immune system was examined in piglets, using F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). It was demonstrated that purified F4 fimbriae, as opposed to ovalbumin (OVA), are powerful oral immunogens. Indeed, oral administration of purified F4 induced antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in the(More)
F4 receptor-positive (F4R+) and F4 receptor-negative (F4R-) pigs were orally vaccinated with purified F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA responses were readily detected in F4R+ animals, whereas immune responses were not detected in F4R- animals. Even after a subsequent oral infection with virulent(More)
Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary,(More)
The uteri of 26 clinically healthy bitches and 42 bitches with a clinical suspicion of pyometra were examined histologically using a computerized image analysis system. Histologic lesions were characterised mainly by thickening or atrophy of the endometrium and by varying degrees of cystic changes of the glands. These lesions were observed in most of the(More)
Recent investigations have demonstrated the need for a precise differentiation of various forms of cell death such as apoptosis, oncosis, necrosis and programmed cell death. Apoptosis is marked by cellular shrinking, condensation and margination of the chromatin and ruffling of the plasma membrane with eventually breaking up of the cell in apoptotic bodies.(More)
Anatomical dissection of the temporal regions of 62 cattle demonstrated that lymph nodes and hemal nodes are present in 89% of the animals (bilaterally in 65% and unilaterally in 24% of the cases). Lymph nodes accounted for 60% and hemal nodes for 40% of all examined nodes. They are nearly always round with diameters ranging from 1 to 9mm. Injections of(More)
Currently Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis is a major problem in broiler flocks. In the present study, broilers were inoculated with a combination of Eimeria maxima or overdose coccidial vaccine (one inoculation) with C. perfringens (repeated inoculations). Single C. perfringens, E. maxima or an overdose of live coccidial vaccine(More)
Very few antigens have been described that induce an intestinal immunity when given orally. Our laboratory demonstrated that oral administration of isolated F4 (K88) fimbriae of Escherichia coli to F4-receptor positive (F4R(+)) pigs induces protective mucosal immunity against challenge infection. However, presence of F4-receptors (F4R) on villous(More)
Sera of young sows from 135 closed Belgian pig breeding farms were examined for the presence of serum antibodies specific for the F4 fimbrial antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Since 80% of all pig farms in Belgium are located in the provinces West-Vlaanderen (44%, approximately 18 farms/10 km2), Oost-Vlaanderen (20%, approximately 9(More)
The topography and histologic structure of the various tonsils were studied anatomically and microscopically in 15 sheep aged between 9 and 15 months. The palatine, pharyngeal and paraepiglottic tonsils were readily visible macroscopically. They consisted mainly of secondary lymph nodules and were encapsulated in dense connective tissues. The epithelium(More)