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Autophagy and apoptosis are two important and interconnected stress-response mechanisms. However, the molecular interplay between these two pathways is not fully understood. To study the fate and function of autophagic proteins at the onset of apoptosis, we used a cellular model system in which autophagy precedes apoptosis. IL-3 depletion of Ba/F3 cells(More)
Murine L929 fibrosarcoma cells treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rapidly die in a necrotic way, due to excessive formation of reactive oxygen intermediates. We investigated the role of caspases in the necrotic cell death pathway. When the cytokine response modifier A (CrmA), a serpin-like caspase inhibitor of viral origin, was stably overexpressed in(More)
Murine L929 fibrosarcoma cells were transfected with the human Fas (APO-1/CD95) receptor, and the role of various caspases in Fas-mediated cell death was assessed. Proteolytic activation of procaspase-3 and -7 was shown by Western analysis. Acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone and benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone++ +,(More)
Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is widely used in disease models to examine the contribution of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 in cell death and inflammation. We studied three Nec-1 analogs: Nec-1, the active inhibitor of RIPK1, Nec-1 inactive (Nec-1i), its inactive variant, and Nec-1 stable (Nec-1s), its more stable variant. We report that Nec-1 is(More)
The identification of caspases as major regulators of apoptotic cell death in animals initiated a quest for homologous peptidases in other kingdoms. With the discovery of metacaspases in plants, fungi, and protozoa, this search had apparently reached its goal. However, there is compelling evidence that metacaspases lack caspase activity and that they are(More)
Caspase-14 is a unique member of the evolutionarily conserved family of cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases, which are mainly involved in inflammation and apoptosis. However, recent evidence also implicates these proteases in proliferation and differentiation. Although most caspases are ubiquitously expressed, caspase-14 expression is confined mainly(More)
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a group of serine proteases, expressed in several tissues. Their activity is regulated by inhibitors including members of the serine protease of Kazal-type (SPINK) family. Recently, we discovered that SPINK6 is expressed in human skin and inhibits KLK5, KLK7, KLK14 but not KLK8. In this study we tested whether SPINK6(More)
Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) has an essential role in the signalling triggered by death receptors and pattern recognition receptors. RIPK1 is believed to function as a node driving NF-κB-mediated cell survival and inflammation as well as caspase-8 (CASP8)-dependent apoptotic or RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptotic cell death. The physiological(More)