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Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21%(More)
Ever since Darwin's early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world's most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is transferred to higher trophic levels. Here we show that(More)
There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and inconsistencies exist. Therefore, in the present study the(More)
Risk assessment procedures use toxicity tests in which organisms are subjected to chemicals under otherwise constant and favorable experimental conditions. Because variable and suboptimal environmental conditions are common aspects of natural ecosystems, the hazard of underestimation of risk arises. Therefore, an uncertainty factor is used in the(More)
Heterocyclic compounds by far outnumber the homocyclic PAHs. In addition, they are often more soluble in water, which may imply a greater biological significance of these heterocycles. Yet, most research focuses on the homocyclics, based on the implicit assumption that the mostly higher concentration of the homocyclics rank these compounds as priority(More)
During acute exposure, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) act mainly by narcosis, but during chronic exposure the same compounds may exert sublethal life cycle effects. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the chronic effects of sediment spiked PACs on the emergence of the midge Chironomus riparius. Three isomer pairs were selected, and 28-day(More)
This study aimed to monitor PAC availability to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus during 28 days of exposure to spiked sediments, in order to obtain reliable chronic effect concentrations for reproduction. Sediment toxicity tests were performed using three pairs of PAC isomers: two homocyclic compounds (anthracene and phenanthrene), two azaarenes(More)
Alachlor, metolachlor and their respective environmentally stable aniline degradation products, 2,6-diethylaniline and 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline were analyzed in water and sediment samples from 9 sites along River Nzoia, Kenya using gas chromatography. The degradation products were detected in > 90% of the sediment and water samples, while the parent(More)
This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from the catchment basin. Higher concentration of heavy metals(More)
Recent studies showed that limiting food conditions resulted in either increased or decreased sensitivity of Daphnia magna to toxicants. It remained unclear whether these contrasting food-dependent alterations in toxicity resulted from differences in intrinsic sensitivity of the daphnids or from changes in toxicokinetics and resource allocation. It is(More)