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Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21%(More)
Ever since Darwin's early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world's most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is transferred to higher trophic levels. Here we show that(More)
The ecosystems of the rivers Rhine and Meuse have suffered drastic environmental changes, for example because of the regulation of the stream bed and the construction of weirs and dams. Furthermore, discharges of industrial and municipal waste water have caused the water quality of these rivers to deteriorate; this problem became acute in the sixties and(More)
There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and inconsistencies exist. Therefore, in the present study the(More)
Risk assessment procedures use toxicity tests in which organisms are subjected to chemicals under otherwise constant and favorable experimental conditions. Because variable and suboptimal environmental conditions are common aspects of natural ecosystems, the hazard of underestimation of risk arises. Therefore, an uncertainty factor is used in the(More)
The benthic diatom Gomphonema parvulum Kützing is a common species in both clean and metal contaminated rivers. Our aim was to investigate whether metal-induced tolerance could explain the persistance of this taxon under metal polluted conditions. G. parvulum strains were isolated from a Zn- and Cd-contaminated stream and from a relatively clean(More)
Heterocyclic compounds by far outnumber the homocyclic PAHs. In addition, they are often more soluble in water, which may imply a greater biological significance of these heterocycles. Yet, most research focuses on the homocyclics, based on the implicit assumption that the mostly higher concentration of the homocyclics rank these compounds as priority(More)
During acute exposure, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) act mainly by narcosis, but during chronic exposure the same compounds may exert sublethal life cycle effects. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the chronic effects of sediment spiked PACs on the emergence of the midge Chironomus riparius. Three isomer pairs were selected, and 28-day(More)
This study aimed to monitor PAC availability to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus during 28 days of exposure to spiked sediments, in order to obtain reliable chronic effect concentrations for reproduction. Sediment toxicity tests were performed using three pairs of PAC isomers: two homocyclic compounds (anthracene and phenanthrene), two azaarenes(More)
After indications from the literature that nutrient concentrations may modify the toxicity of herbicides to natural periphyton communities, this study aims to provide experimental proof for atrazine. In this microcosm experiment, phosphate (P) addition did not ameliorate atrazine toxicity to periphyton. Three weeks of P addition did not increase atrazine(More)