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Risk assessment procedures use toxicity tests in which organisms are subjected to chemicals under otherwise constant and favorable experimental conditions. Because variable and suboptimal environmental conditions are common aspects of natural ecosystems, the hazard of underestimation of risk arises. Therefore, an uncertainty factor is used in the(More)
Standard toxicity tests are performed at one constant, optimal temperature (usually 20 degrees C), while in the field variable and suboptimal temperatures may occur. Lack of knowledge on the interactions between chemicals and temperature hampers the extrapolation of laboratory toxicity data to ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the(More)
The selective toxicity of H2O2 was investigated to develop a potential tool for limiting cyanobacterial blooms and to better understand the occurrence of cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton species in relation to reactive oxygen species in surface waters. The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the(More)
Ever since Darwin's early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world's most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is transferred to higher trophic levels. Here we show that(More)
The ecosystems of the rivers Rhine and Meuse have suffered drastic environmental changes, for example because of the regulation of the stream bed and the construction of weirs and dams. Furthermore, discharges of industrial and municipal waste water have caused the water quality of these rivers to deteriorate; this problem became acute in the sixties and(More)
The spatial and temporal distribution of element concentrations were monitored together with chlorophyll a as an indicator of algal density to assess the effect of phytoplankton on the elemental composition (C, N, P) of suspended materials in the lower Rhine. The high concentrations of particulate C, N and P in the river were found to decrease in the delta(More)
The effects of copper (Cu) on photosynthetic riverine biofilms were studied in artificial stream channels. Direct effects on the composition and functioning of the biofilms were investigated using plant pigments, community-level physiological profiles (CLPP), and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence. Copper caused a significant reduction of(More)
After indications from the literature that nutrient concentrations may modify the toxicity of herbicides to natural periphyton communities, this study aims to provide experimental proof for atrazine. In this microcosm experiment, phosphate (P) addition did not ameliorate atrazine toxicity to periphyton. Three weeks of P addition did not increase atrazine(More)
Recent studies showed that limiting food conditions resulted in either increased or decreased sensitivity of Daphnia magna to toxicants. It remained unclear whether these contrasting food-dependent alterations in toxicity resulted from differences in intrinsic sensitivity of the daphnids or from changes in toxicokinetics and resource allocation. It is(More)
There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and inconsistencies exist. Therefore, in the present study the(More)