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Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) anchors onto cell membranes by a transmembrane protein PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor) as a tetrameric form in vertebrate brain. The assembly of AChE tetramer with PRiMA requires the C-terminal "t-peptide" in AChE catalytic subunit (AChE(T)). Although mature AChE is well known N-glycosylated, the role of glycosylation in(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is well-known for its cholinergic functions in the nervous system; however, this enzyme is also found in other tissues where its function is still not understood. AChE is synthesized through alternative splicing as splicing variants, with isoforms including read-through (AChE(R)), tailed (AChE(T)) and hydrophobic (AChE(H)). In(More)
Alzheimer’s disease is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder devastatingly affecting the aged population worldwide. Previous studies have shown that medicinal herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine might be benefit to Alzheimer’s disease patients. Berberine and palmatine, two isoquinoline alkaloids found in several medicinal herbs, were used for(More)
Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three(More)
Astragali Radix (AR) has been used for over 2000 years in China for the enrichment of "Qi". Hedysari Radix (HR), a herb having similar chemical composition with AR, has been commonly used as a substitute of AR in herbal decoction. In order to evaluate the possible replacement of HR for AR in Chinese herbal decoction, systematic comparison of AR and HR was(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has been used to evaluate the exposure of mollusk bivalves to organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals. Crassostrea hongkongensis is a Hong Kong endemic oyster, and has a high commercial value along the coastal area of South China. The use of this species as a bio-indicator of the marine environment, and(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is organized into globular tetramers (G(4)) by a structural protein called proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA), anchoring it into the cell membrane of neurons in the brain. The assembly of AChE tetramers with PRiMA requires the presence of a C-terminal "t-peptide" in the AChE catalytic subunit (AChE(T)). The glycosylation of(More)
The gene encoding the collagen-tailed subunit (ColQ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) contains two distinct promoters that drive the production of two ColQ mRNAs, ColQ-1 and ColQ-1a, in slow- and fast-twitch muscles, respectively. ColQ-1a is expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in fast-twitch muscle, and this expression depends on trophic factors(More)
Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive(More)
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