Learn More
The Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes six type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), but little is known about the role of these systems in the biology of B. pseudomallei. In this study, we purified recombinant Hcp proteins from each T6SS and tested them as vaccine candidates in the BALB/c mouse model of melioidosis. Recombinant Hcp2 protected 80% of(More)
Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted pathogen and a category B biothreat agent. Although the B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system is required for virulence in hamsters, the virulence genes it regulates are unknown. Here we show with expression profiling that overexpression of virAG resulted in transcriptional activation of approximately 60(More)
Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhalational anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores. Found in high frequency throughout the respiratory track, dendritic cells (DCs) routinely take up foreign particles and migrate to lymph(More)
A two-component recombinant fusion protein antigen was re-engineered and tested as a medical counter measure against the possible biological threat of aerosolized Yersinia pestis. The active component of the proposed subunit vaccine combines the F1 capsular protein and V virulence antigen of Y. pestis and improves upon the design of an earlier(More)
Alveolar macrophages (AM) are very important for pulmonary innate immune responses against invading inhaled pathogens because they directly kill the organisms and initiate a cascade of innate and adaptive immune responses. Although several factors contribute to inhalational anthrax, we hypothesized that unimpeded infection of Bacillus anthracis is directly(More)
Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of approximately 60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a(More)
Macrophages attempt to battle infection with Bacillus anthracis spores by phagocytosis of the spores. However, it is believed that B. anthracis spores may survive phagocytosis and may actually use the macrophages that ingest them as a means of transport to lymph nodes. Thus far, the events that occur after spores undergo phagocytosis have remained unclear.(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax, produces two bipartite, AB-type exotoxins, edema toxin and lethal toxin. The B subunit of both exotoxins is an M(r) 83,000 protein termed protective antigen (PA). The human anthrax vaccine currently licensed for use in the United States consists primarily of this protein adsorbed onto aluminum(More)
Anthrax protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), a pore-forming protein, upon protease activation to 63 kDa (PA(63)), translocates lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) from endosomes into the cytosol of the cell. The relatively small size of the heptameric PA(63) pore (approximately 12 angstroms) raises questions as to how large molecules such as LF and EF can(More)
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) was characterized in plasma from infected African Green monkeys, rabbits, and guinea pigs. In all cases, during the terminal phase of infection only the protease-activated 63-kDa form of protective antigen (PA(63)) and the residual 20-kDa fragment (PA(20)) were detected in the plasma. No uncut PA with a molecular mass of(More)