Wilson C. Chung

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Estrogens are reported to have both anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties. This dichotomous neurobiological response to estrogens may be mediated by the existence of two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ERalpha and ERbeta. In brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function, whereas ERbeta may be more important(More)
Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with anosmia (Kallmann syndrome; KS) or with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IHH; nIHH) are heterogeneous genetic disorders associated with deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). While loss-of-function mutations in FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) cause human GnRH deficiency, to date no specific ligand(More)
GnRH neurons are essential for the onset and maintenance of reproduction. Mutations in both fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr1) and Fgf8 have been shown to cause Kallmann syndrome, a disease characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia, indicating that FGF signaling is indispensable for the formation of a functional GnRH system.(More)
Estrogens are reported to have both anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties. This dichotomous neurobiological response to estrogens may be mediated by the existence of two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ER and ER . In brain, ER plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function, whereas ER may be more important in regulating(More)
Menopause is characterized by the rapid age-related decline of circulating 17β-estradiol (E(2)) levels in women, which can sometimes result in cognitive disorders such as impaired memory and increased anxiety. Hormone therapy (HT) is a widely used treatment for the adverse effects associated with menopause; however, evidence suggests that HT administered to(More)
Quite a number of structural and functional sex differences have been reported in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures that may be related to not only reproduction, sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to the often pronounced sex differences in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases. One of the recent focuses of interest(More)
Gonadal steroids have remarkable developmental effects on sex-dependent brain organization and behavior in animals. Presumably, fetal or neonatal gonadal steroids are also responsible for sexual differentiation of the human brain. A limbic structure of special interest in this regard is the sexually dimorphic central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the(More)
5alpha-Androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol) is a metabolite of the potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Recent studies showed that 3betaAdiol binds to estrogen receptor (ER)-beta and regulates growth of the prostate gland through an estrogen, and not androgen, receptor-mediated pathway. These data raise the possibility that 3betaAdiol could(More)
Estrogens regulate neural processes such as neuronal development, reproductive behavior, and hormone secretion, and signal through estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta (here called ERbeta1). Recent studies have found variations in ERalpha and ERbeta1 mRNA splicing in rodents and humans. Functional reporter gene assays suggest that these splicing(More)