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Mitochondrial-plastid interdependence within the plant cell is presumed to be essential, but measurable demonstration of this intimate interaction is difficult. At the level of cellular metabolism, several biosynthetic pathways involve both mitochondrial- and plastid-localized steps. However, at an environmental response level, it is not clear how the two(More)
Chloroplasts are cytoplasmic organelles and the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. Advances in structural biology and comparative genomics allow us to identify individual components of the photosynthetic apparatus precisely with respect to the subcellular location of their genes. Here we present outline maps of four energy-transducing thylakoid(More)
Postendosymbiotic evolution has given rise to proteins that are multiply targeted within the cell. Various mechanisms have been identified to permit the expression of proteins encoding distinct N termini from a single gene. One mechanism involves alternative translation initiation (aTI). We previously showed evidence of aTI activity within the Arabidopsis(More)
Diatoms are unicellular, mainly photosynthetic, eukaryotes living within elaborate silicified cell walls and believed to be responsible for around 40% of global primary productivity in the oceans. Their abundance in aquatic ecosystems is such that they have on different occasions been described as the insects, the weeds, or the cancer cells of the ocean. In(More)
The persistence of mtDNA to encode a small subset of mitochondrial proteins reflects the selective advantage of co-location of key respiratory chain subunit genes with their gene products. The disadvantage of this co-location is exposure of mtDNA to mutagenic ROS (reactive oxygen species), which are by-products of aerobic respiration. The resulting 'vicious(More)
Oxidative phosphorylation couples ATP synthesis to respiratory electron transport. In eukaryotes, this coupling occurs in mitochondria, which carry DNA. Respiratory electron transport in the presence of molecular oxygen generates free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mutagenic. In animals, mutational damage to mitochondrial DNA therefore(More)
Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes-oocytes-have unusually small(More)
Mitochondrial-plastid interdependence within the plant cell is presumed to be essential, but measurable demonstration of this intimate interaction is difficult. At the level of cellular metabolism, several biosynthetic pathways involve both mitochondrialand plastid-localized steps. However, at an environmental response level, it is not clear how the two(More)
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