Wilma C. Hazeleger

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The retention of bacteria on food contact surfaces increases the risk of cross-contamination of these microorganisms to food. The risk has been considered to be lowered when the surfaces are dry, partly because bacterial growth and survival would be reduced. However, some non-spore-forming bacteria might be able to withstand dry conditions on surfaces for(More)
Growing microorganisms on dry surfaces, which results in exposure to low water activity (a(w)), may change their normal morphology and physiological activity. In this study, the morphological changes and cell viability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis challenged to low a(w) were analyzed. The results indicated that exposure to reduced a(w) induced(More)
A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and(More)
The effect of temperature and the availability of nutrients on the transition of spiral Campylobacter jejuni cells to coccoid forms was investigated. Ageing of spiral C. jejuni cells in either nutrient-poor or nutrient-rich environments resulted in the formation of nonculturable coccoid cells at 4, 12, and 25 degrees C after different periods, with the(More)
The first isolation methods for the detection of Listeria spp. were generally based on the direct culture of samples on simple agar media, but isolation of the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes was difficult. In time, new techniques were developed, based on a variety of selective and elective agents in isolation and enrichment media, which gained better and(More)
Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza(More)
The behavior of Campylobacter jejuni at environmental temperatures was examined by determining the physiological activities of this human pathogen. The minimal growth temperatures were found to be 32 and 31 degrees C for strains 104 and ATCC 33560, respectively. Both strains exhibited a sudden decrease in growth rate from the maximum to zero within a few(More)
Detection of the coccoid form of Campylobacter jejuni with the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was examined. Coccoid cells of this pathogen, formed at different temperatures, showed different detection characteristics in the PCR. For spirals and cocci formed at 4 degrees C and 12 degrees C, the detection limit was about 2 x 10(3) cells/PCR.(More)
Prediction of microbial growth kinetics can differ from the actual behavior of the target microorganisms. In the present study, the impact of strain variability on maximum specific growth rate (μmax) (h(-1)) was quantified using twenty Listeria monocytogenes strains. The μmax was determined as function of four different variables, namely pH, water activity(More)
Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a(More)