Willmann Liang

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AIMS The urothelium has been implicated in regulating detrusor smooth muscle contractility but the identity of the putative urothelium-derived inhibitory factor remains unconfirmed. There was inconclusive evidence on the role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in mediating detrusor contractions. This study examined varying regulation by(More)
Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from(More)
Chronic exposure to a hypoxic environment results in a number of physiological changes such as cardiac arrhythmia and pulmonary edema. We hereby studied the variations in activation of brain areas during simple calculation tasks between individuals originating from different altitudes. Two groups of subjects, one from 1700 m above sea level (lowlanders) and(More)
NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) is an important molecular entity governing a wide range of functions in the central nervous system. For example, the NMDA-R is involved in memory and cognition, and impairment of both (as in Alzheimer's Disease) is attributed to NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. With greater understanding of the NMDA-R structure, antagonists with varying(More)
This teaching article uses the report by Kwan et al., "Effects of methacholine, thapsigargin, and La(3+) on plasmalemmal and intracellular Ca(2+) transport in lacrimal acinar cells," where the effects of Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents in regulating Ca(2+) fluxes were examined under various conditions. Upper-level undergraduate and new graduate students in(More)
A rat model of ovariectomy-induced voiding dysfunction was established and the effects of ovariectomy and subsequent estrogen replacement on the affinity of muscarinic receptors in the rat bladder were determined. Voiding frequency and spatial distribution patterns were documented in sham-operated (control), and ovariectomized (placebo- or estrogen-treated)(More)
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