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1. To facilitate investigation of diverse rodent behaviours in rodents' home cages, we have developed an integrated modular platform, the SmartCage(™) system (AfaSci, Inc. Burlingame, CA, USA), which enables automated neurobehavioural phenotypic analysis and in vivo drug screening in a relatively higher-throughput and more objective manner. 2, The(More)
Activation of brain nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptors leads to attenuation of mu-opioid receptor (MOP receptor)-mediated antinociception. Buprenorphine, a high-affinity partial MOP receptor agonist also binds to NOP receptors with 80 nM affinity. The buprenorphine-induced inverted U-shaped dose-response curve for antinociception may be due to NOP(More)
The unique pharmacological profile of buprenorphine has led to its considerable success as an analgesic and as a treatment agent for drug abuse. Activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors has been postulated to account for certain aspects of buprenorphine's behavioral profile. In order to investigate the role of NOP activation further, a(More)
Genomic and pharmacologic data have suggested the involvement of the α3β4 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in drug seeking to nicotine and other drugs of abuse. In order to better examine this receptor subtype, we have identified and characterized the first high affinity and selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist, AT-1001, both in vitro and in(More)
The nociceptin receptor (NOPr), a member of the opioid receptor family, is a target for the treatment of pain and drug abuse. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous peptide for NOPr, not only modulates opioid antinociception, but also blocks the rewarding effects of several abused drugs, such as morphine, cocaine, and amphetamine. We hypothesized(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) was recently identified as the endogenous ligand for the opioid-receptor like (ORL1) receptor. Although the ORL1 receptor shows sequence homology with the opioid receptors, the nociceptin/ORL1 ligand-receptor system has very distinct pharmacological actions compared to the opioid receptor system. Recently, several(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Compounds that activate both NOP and mu-opioid receptors might be useful as analgesics and drug abuse medications. Studies were carried out to better understand the biological activity of such compounds. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Binding affinities were determined on membranes from cells transfected with NOP and opioid receptors.(More)
The recently discovered fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its endogenous ligand, the heptadecapeptide nociceptin, are involved in several central nervous system pathways, such as nociception, reward, tolerance, and feeding. The discovery of small-molecule ligands for NOP is being actively pursued for several(More)
A series of N-(4-piperidinyl)-2-indolinones were discovered as a new structural class of nociceptin receptor (NOP) ligands. Unlike other previously reported classes of NOP receptor ligands, modifications of the piperidine N substituents afforded both potent agonists and antagonists, with modest selectivities over other opioid receptors. The SAR revealed in(More)
Certain behavioral features of buprenorphine, including a bell-shaped curve for antinociception and attenuation of alcohol consumption, are thought to be mediated by activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors, despite moderate affinity and low efficacy at NOP receptors. We hypothesized that ligands with buprenorphine's physical properties,(More)