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Accumulating evidence has indicated that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a specific role in the intricate cascade of events of cardiovascular function, in addition to its well established growth-promoting and metabolic effects. IGF-1 is believed to mediate many effects of growth hormone (GH), IGF-1 promotes cardiac growth, improves cardiac(More)
The hypocretins, also known as the orexins, are alternate translation products of a single gene. The recognition of their production in neurons of the rostral diencephalon, and their axonal localization in brain sites known to be important in the control of appetite, led to the demonstration of their orexogenic actions. However, these peptides are not as(More)
The endogenous, peptide ligand for the orphan receptors GPR7 and GPR8 was identified to be neuropeptide W (NPW). Because these receptors are expressed in brain and in particular in hypothalamus, we hypothesized that NPW might interact with neuroendocrine systems that control hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland. No significant effects of NPW(More)
Nesfatin-1 is a newly-discovered satiety peptide found in several nuclei of the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus. To begin to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these satiety-inducing actions, we examined the effects of nesfatin-1 on the excitability of neurones in the paraventricular nucleus. Whole-cell current-clamp(More)
Neuropeptide W (NPW) is produced in neurons located in hypothalamus and brain stem, and its receptors are present in the hypothalamus, in particular in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPW activated, in a dose-related fashion, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as determined by plasma corticosterone(More)
Neuropeptide B (NPB) was identified to be an endogenous, peptide ligand for the orphan receptors GPR7 and GPR8. Because GPR7 is expressed in rat brain and, in particular, in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that NPB might interact with neuroendocrine systems that control hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland. No significant effects of NPB were(More)
The hypocretins/orexins are hypothalamic peptides most recognized for their significant effects on feeding and arousal. Indeed, loss of the peptides results in a cataplexy quite similar to that observed canine models of human narcolepsy. However, neurons producing these peptides project to numerous brain sites known to be important in neuroendocrine(More)
Two potent hypotensive peptides, adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), are encoded by the adrenomedullin gene. AM stimulates nitric oxide production by endothelial cells, whereas PAMP acts presynaptically to inhibit adrenergic nerves that innervate blood vessels. Complementary, but mechanistically unique, actions also occur(More)
BACKGROUND The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) has emerged as one of the most important autonomic control centers in the brain, with neurons playing essential roles in controlling stress, metabolism, growth, reproduction, immune and other more traditional autonomic functions (gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular). OBJECTIVES(More)