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Using the bacterial K+ channel KcsA as a template, we constructed models of the pore region of the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel (RyR2) monomer and tetramer. Physicochemical characteristics of the RyR2 model monomer were compared with the template, including homology, predicted secondary structure, surface area, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic(More)
We have examined the effects of a number of derivatives of ryanodine on K+ conduction in the Ca2+ release channel purified from sheep cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In a fashion comparable to that of ryanodine, the addition of nanomolar to micromolar quantities to the cytoplasmic face (the exact amount depending on the derivative) causes the channel(More)
The binding of ryanodine to a high affinity site on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release channel results in a dramatic alteration in both gating and ion handling; the channel enters a high open probability, reduced-conductance state. Once bound, ryanodine does not dissociate from its site within the time frame of a single channel experiment. In this(More)
The effects of adenosine and adenine on the gating of native sheep cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels were investigated. By examining the mechanisms underlying channel activation and by using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) we have investigated the structural features of adenine-based ligands involved in channel activation. In the(More)
The plant growth regulator, abscisic acid (ABA), is synthesized via the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. Specifically, a double bond is cleaved by molecular oxygen and an aldehyde is formed at the site of cleavage in both products. The Vp14 gene from maize encodes an oxidative cleavage enzyme for ABA biosynthesis and the recombinant VP14 protein(More)
Candida albicans is the most common cause of hematogenously disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis. Both of these diseases are characterized by fungal invasion of host cells. Previously, we have found that C. albicans hyphae invade endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells in vitro by inducing their own endocytosis. Therefore, we set out to identify(More)
We present a new approach to interactive modeling of free-form surfaces. Instead of a fixed mesh of control points, the model presented to the user is that of an infinitely malleable surface, with no fixed controls. The user is free to apply control points and curves which are then available as handles for direct manipulation. The complexity of the(More)
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans colonizes and invades a wide range of host tissues. Adherence to host constituents plays an important role in this process. Two members of the C. albicans Als protein family (Als1p and Als5p) have been found to mediate adherence; however, the functions of other members of this family are unknown. In this study,(More)