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Fat supplementation (about 3% of dietary dry matter) has often positively influenced the reproductive status of the dairy cow, including increased size of the ovulatory follicle, increased numbers of ovarian follicles, increased plasma concentration of progesterone, reduced secretion of prostaglandin metabolite, increased lifespan of the corpus luteum, and(More)
The objective was to examine the effects of presynchronization and bovine somatotropin (bST) on pregnancy rates to a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 543) were assigned randomly in a 2 x 3 factorial experiment in which cows received a presynchronization treatment or not, and were treated with bST(More)
Reproductive failure in inseminated cattle results from poor fertilization and embryo survival. Recent studies utilizing dairy and beef cattle indicate that fertilization rates are higher for nulliparous dairy and beef heifers and nonlactating beef cows than lactating beef and dairy cows and nonlactating dairy cows. Several factors affect fertilization(More)
Management, nutrition, production, and genetics are the main reasons for the decline in fertility in the modern dairy cow. Selection for the single trait of milk production with little consideration for traits associated with reproduction in the modern dairy cow has produced an antagonistic relationship between milk yield and reproductive performance. The(More)
For an evaluation of the effects of heat stress during pregnancy on calf birth weight and postpartum maternal milk yield, 21 cows and 10 heifers were assigned to shade (S; n = 16) or no shade (NS; n = 15) treatments during the last trimester of pregnancy in June 1978. At parturition, all cows were removed from treatment and uniformly managed in the milking(More)
Fats in the diet can influence reproduction positively by altering both ovarian follicle and corpus luteum function via improved energy status and by increasing precursors for the synthesis of reproductive hormones such as steroids and prostaglandins. Dietary fatty acids of the n-3 family reduce ovarian and endometrial synthesis of prostaglandin F2alpha,(More)
Physiological state of dairy animals is a predisposing factor in environmental influences on animal health. Critical phases of life cycle include neonatal period, postpubertal reproduction, and lactation. Primary effect of environment in neonatal period is increased disease incidence associated with reduced immunoglobulin content in plasma of calves. Cold(More)
The objective was to determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) and two artificial insemination (AI) protocols on reproductive performance of Holstein cows. Lactating cows (n = 840) were assigned at 37 d in milk (DIM) to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of either bST (500 mg/14 d) starting at 63 +/- 3 DIM(More)
Enhanced secretion of PGF2 alpha from endometrial explants in vitro in response to oxytocin is associated with augmented activities of phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGS). In early pregnancy, maintenance of the corpus luteum is associated with an absence of pulsatile PGF2 alpha secretion; an increase in(More)
Our objectives were to identify stages of the estrous cycle at which initiation of a timed artificial insemination (Ovsynch/TAI) protocol may reduce pregnancy rates and to monitor ovarian follicle dynamics and corpus luteum development after initiation of the Ovsynch/TAI protocol at different stages of the cycle. Cycling Holstein heifers (n = 24) were(More)