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An immunohistochemical assay for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) identifies cells in all active phases of the cell cycle. In this study, PCNA methodology, which was developed primarily for mammalian tissues, was adapted to three small fish species, medaka (Oryzias latipes), guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)(More)
This paper evaluates and compares different clock architectures such as mesh, tree and their hybrids, on several industrial designs. The goal of our study is to gain a quantitative understanding of engineering trade-offs between different architectures with respect to clock skew, latency, timing uncertainty, and power. This understanding will lead to(More)
Mercury concentrations in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) collected from an area of mercury-contaminated sediments in Lavaca Bay, TX, USA, are more than an order of magnitude greater than concentrations in penaeid shrimp from the same area. Laboratory feeding experiments using mercury-contaminated fish as food showed that both blue crabs and pink shrimp(More)
In this paper, we review the logical effort model presented in [1]. Based on the HSPICE simulation results using 0.18µm, CMOS technology as applied to logic blocks used in arithmetic circuits; we analyze the efficiency of the model and also present modifications that include modeling of wire delay. We propose a new model for logical effort that will better(More)
The effects of tributyltin (TBT) to the life cycle of the estuarine fish Cyprinodon variegatus were examined in a 180-day flow-through exposure. The study was initiated with embryos less than 24 h postfertilization and monitored through hatch, maturation, growth, and reproduction under continuous exposure to mean measured TBT concentrations of 5.4, 3.2,(More)
A need exists for whole animal toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis models that are alternative to the traditional rodent test models and that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to(More)
Mesh architectures are used for distributing critical global signals on a chip such as clock and power/ground. The inherent redundancy created by loops present in the mesh smooths out undesirable variations between signal nodes spatially distributed over the chip. However, one outstanding problem with mesh architectures is the difficulty in analyzing them(More)
—We present a method, on-chip test circuitry, and an error analysis, for accurate measurement of timing characteristics and power consumption of clocked storage elements. The test circuit was fabricated in 0.11 m CMOS technology and the measurements performed automatically using a serial scan interface. The precision and accuracy of the presented method are(More)