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BACKGROUND Despite preventive efforts, influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year in the United States (US). Vaccination strategies to reduce disease burden have been implemented. However, no previous studies have systematically estimated the annual economic burden of influenza epidemics, an estimate necessary to(More)
Data from public health surveillance systems can provide meaningful measures of population risks for disease, disability, and death. Analysis and evaluation of these surveillance data help public health practitioners react to important health events in a timely manner both locally and nationally. Aberration detection methods allow the rapid assessment of(More)
CONTEXT Gulf War (GW) veterans report nonspecific symptoms significantly more often than their nondeployed peers. However, no specific disorder has been identified, and the etiologic basis and clinical significance of their symptoms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES To organize symptoms reported by US Air Force GW veterans into a case definition, to characterize(More)
CONTEXT Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Statistical methods used to estimate deaths in the United States attributable to influenza have not accounted for RSV circulation. OBJECTIVE To develop a statistical model using national mortality and viral surveillance data to estimate annual influenza- and(More)
CONTEXT Respiratory viral infections are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations in the United States each year. OBJECTIVE To estimate annual influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States by hospital discharge category, discharge type, and age group. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data(More)
OBJECTIVE Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was designed to examine relationships between prenatal and infant ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines(More)
BACKGROUND It has been hypothesized that early exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative used in vaccines and immune globulin preparations, is associated with neuropsychological deficits in children. METHODS We enrolled 1047 children between the ages of 7 and 10 years and administered standardized tests assessing 42 neuropsychological(More)
Acute respiratory infections, including influenza, have been suggested as possible precipitants of acute cardiac events. To evaluate whether influenza vaccination prevents recurrent coronary events, the authors conducted a population-based inception cohort study of 1,378 Group Health Cooperative enrollees who survived a first myocardial infarction in 1992(More)
In 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) among poultry coincided with 18 documented human cases of H5N1 illness. Although exposure to live poultry was associated with human illness, no cases were documented among poultry workers (PWs). To evaluate the potential for avian-to-human transmission of H5N1, a cohort study was conducted among 293(More)
CONTEXT Although the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination are well established for persons aged 65 years or older, the benefits for healthy adults younger than 65 years are less clear. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccine in preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) and reducing societal costs(More)