William W . Muir

Learn More
OBJECTIVE To determine the cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of 2, 6, and 20 mg kg(-1) IV alfaxalone in hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (Alfaxan) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN Blinded four-way crossover randomized by dose. ANIMALS Eight healthy adult purpose-bred mixed breed dogs (four male, four female) weighing between 12 and 28 kg. METHODS Four (0,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of 0, 5, 15, and 50 mg kg(-1) intravenous (IV) alfaxalone in hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (Alfaxan; Jurox Pty Ltd, Rutherford, NSW, Australia) in cats. STUDY DESIGN Four treatments of alfaxalone were administered in sequential order. ANIMALS Eight healthy adult cats (four male; four(More)
The effects of propofol on anesthetic induction were evaluated in 40 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. Propofol is a rapidly acting, nonbarbiturate drug that induces anesthesia of ultrashort duration with IV administration. Four preanesthetic regimens were used: anesthesia without preanesthetic drugs; or with preanesthetic administration of acepromazine(More)
The respiratory, renal, hematologic, and serum biochemical effects of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) treatment were examined in 12 endotoxic, pentobarbital-anesthetized calves (8 to 20 days old). Escherichia coli endotoxin (055:B5) was infused IV at a rate of 0.1 microgram/kg of body weight over 30 minutes. Endotoxin induced severe respiratory effects,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of constant rate infusion of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination on end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ET-Iso) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane and monitor depth of anesthesia by use of the bispectral index (BIS). ANIMALS 6 adult(More)
The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine, and xylazine in horses were studied. Fifteen horses, whose right carotid arteries had previously been surgically raised to a subcutaneous position during general anesthesia were used. Five horses each were given the following 8 treatments: an intravenous injection of 4 doses of medetomidine (3, 5, 7.5,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cardiovascular effects of total IV anesthesia with propofol (P-TIVA) or ketamine-medetomidine-propofol (KMP-TIVA) in horses. ANIMALS 5 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Horses were anesthetized twice for 4 hours, once with P-TIVA and once with KMP-TIVA. Horses were medicated with medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg, IV) and anesthetized with(More)
One hundred sixty horses were anesthetized with xylazine, guaifenesin, thiamylal, and halothane for elective soft tissue and orthopedic procedures. Horses were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 40): Horses positioned in lateral (LRG1; n = 20) or dorsal (DRG1; n = 20) recumbency breathed spontaneously throughout anesthesia. Group 2 (n =(More)
The cardiopulmonary effects resulting from the combination of xylazine and ketamine hydrochloride were evaluated in the adult horse. Xylazine (1.1 mg mg/kg) administered intravenously prior to or simultaneously with ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg; intravenous) provided excellent analgesia and light anesthesia in all horses. Cardiac output, arterial blood(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is a synthetic chemical binding molecule (ligand) that selectively binds to the "slow response" glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR). NMDARs are important for normal brain function and play a central role in learning, memory, and the development of central nervous system hyperactive states. Diverse chemicals belonging to various drug(More)