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BACKGROUND Men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer with either radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy usually survive many years with the side effects of these treatments. We present treatment-specific quality-of-life outcomes for prostate cancer patients 5 years after initial diagnosis. METHODS The cohort consisted of men aged(More)
BACKGROUND Screening to detect cancer early, an increasingly important cancer control activity, cannot be effective unless it is widely used. METHODS Use of Pap smears, mammography, fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs), sigmoidoscopy, and digital rectal examination (DRE) was evaluated in the 1987, 1992, and 1998 National Health Interview Surveys. Levels and(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on respiratory health in a national sample of young children. METHODS The study evaluated children 2 months through 5 years of age participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. The group was a representative sample of the US population (N =(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have examined lack of physician recommendation and other reasons for under-utilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the Medicare population. METHODS Data from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 in a random sample of Medicare consumers residing in North and South Carolina were used to examine barriers to CRC screening,(More)
Using a hierarchical model with an adjustment for sample selection, we estimate the overweight prevalence for adults, by states, using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). A two-stage hierarchical model was selected to account for geographic variability of outcomes and to model possible overdispersion of(More)
BACKGROUND Nonmedical costs of care, such as patient time associated with travel to, waiting for, and seeking medical care, are rarely measured systematically with population-based data. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to estimate patient time costs associated with colorectal cancer care. METHODS We identified categories of key medical services(More)
A variety of in utero factors have been associated with risk of adult cancers, particularly birth weight, toxemia, and gestational age. These factors are thought to reflect hormonal exposures during pregnancy. We hypothesized that the prenatal hormonal milieu may explain part of the variation in cancer rates across ethnic groups, for example, the higher(More)
Previous treadmill exercise studies showing neuroprotective effects have raised questions as to whether exercise or the stress related to it may be key etiologic factors. In this study, we examined different exercise regimens (forced and voluntary exercise) and compared them with the effect of stress-only on stroke protection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
This study explores the neuroprotective action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced during physical exercise, which, consequently, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and ameliorates blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in association with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Adult male(More)
BACKGROUND There is no agreement on the best data source for measuring colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Medicare claims have been used to measure CRC testing but the validity of using claims to measure fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) has not been established. METHODS We compared ascertainment of FOBT among three data sources: self-reports, Medicare(More)