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The Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the Phoenix Mars Lander performed aqueous chemical analyses of martian soil from the polygon-patterned northern plains of the Vastitas Borealis. The solutions contained approximately 10 mM of dissolved salts with 0.4 to 0.6% perchlorate (ClO4) by mass leached from each sample. The remaining anions included small(More)
X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion(More)
Using the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Mars Odyssey, we have identified two regions near the poles that are enriched in hydrogen. The data indicate the presence of a subsurface layer enriched in hydrogen overlain by a hydrogen-poor layer. The thickness of the upper layer decreases with decreasing distance to the pole, ranging from a column density of about(More)
[1] Chemical analyses of three Martian soil samples were performed using the Wet Chemistry Laboratories on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander. One soil sample was obtained from the top $2 cm (Rosy Red) and two were obtained at $5 cm depth from the ice table interface (Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2). When mixed with water in a $1:25 soil to solution ratio (by(More)
Soft-gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are galactic X-ray stars that emit numerous short-duration (about 0.1 s) bursts of hard X-rays during sporadic active periods. They are thought to be magnetars: strongly magnetized neutron stars with emissions powered by the dissipation of magnetic energy. Here we report the detection of a long (380 s) giant flare from SGR(More)
Global distributions of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes have been mapped during late southern summer/northern winter using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. These fluxes are selectively sensitive to the vertical and lateral spatial distributions of H and CO2 in the uppermost meter of the martian surface. Poleward of +/-60 degrees latitude(More)
After 55 days of mapping by the High Energy Neutron Detector onboard Mars Odyssey, we found deficits of high-energy neutrons in the southern highlands and northern lowlands of Mars. These deficits indicate that hydrogen is concentrated in the subsurface. Modeling suggests that water ice-rich layers that are tens of centimeters in thickness provide one(More)
The Surface Science Package (SSP) consists of nine independent subsystems with the primary aim of characterising Titan's surface at the end of Huygens' descent through Titan's atmosphere in late 2004. In addition, many useful atmospheric measurements will be made during the descent phase. Seven of the subsystems are mounted inside or on the lower rim of a(More)
administrative, and publications support for the conference were provided by the Publications and Program Services Department of the LPI. The Lunar and Planetary Institute is operated by the Universities Space Research Association under Cooperative Agreement No. NCC5-679 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Material in this publication(More)