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The authors provided a differential test between stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) theory predictions in regard to the roles that the constructs of expectancy and of fear play in maintaining classically conditioned fear responding within the context of a human conditioned-avoidance paradigm. After the participants had developed sustained(More)
The War Events Scale (WES) was developed to assist clinicians with the assessment of war zone veterans' exposure to, and participation in war-time atrocities distinct from combat, and their current distress from these events. Data concerning content validity, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, as well as correlational data with the Combat(More)
INTRODUCTION This study identified distinct tobacco use trajectories across 18months in 943 veteran smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in order to describe quit and relapse patterns, examine associations between trajectory groups on baseline characteristics and cessation service utilization, and explore group differences in mental health(More)
Despite significant advances in individual treatment approaches for PTSD, knowledge of group approaches has lagged behind. Much of the reason knowledge about group treatment for PTSD has been limited is due to the complexity of conducting randomized controlled trials in the group treatment context. This limited empirical knowledge is unfortunate given the(More)
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