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BACKGROUND Many commercially available pedometers undercount, especially at slower speeds. We examined the effects of age, obesity, and self-selected walking speed on pedometer accuracy. We also compared the accuracy of piezoelectric and spring-levered pedometers at slow walking speeds. METHODS Study 1: 259 subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at two(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To review factors contributing to variation in total daily energy expenditure and its primary components: (1) resting metabolic rate; (2) diet-induced thermogenesis; and (3) activity thermogenesis, including exercise energy expenditure and nonexercise activity. For each component, the expected magnitude of intra-individual variability is(More)
Seven nonobese adult females (40 +/- 8 years) were studied in a room calorimeter on a day that resistance exercise (REX) was performed (4 sets of 10 exercises) and on a nonexercise control day (CON). Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) on the REX day (mean +/- SD, 2,328 +/- 327 kcal.d(-1)) was greater than CON (2,001 +/- 369 kcal.d(-1), p < 0.001). The(More)
In cultured adipocytes, leptin is increased by insulin and decreased by cAMP. In animal models, insulin and agents that increase intracellular cAMP have been shown to similarly affect plasma leptin in vivo. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that in humans increased cAMP induced by isoproterenol would decrease leptin. Five groups of normal(More)
OBJECTIVE Higher calcium and dairy intakes may be associated with lower body weights, but a mechanism in humans has yet to be elucidated. We compared the effects of a dairy-based high-calcium diet and a low-calcium diet on macronutrient oxidation. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Subjects (10 men and nine women) consumed a low-dairy (LD, approximately one(More)
The global obesity epidemic is being driven in large part by a mismatch between our environment and our metabolism. Human physiology developed to function within an environment where high levels of physical activity were needed in daily life and food was inconsistently available. For most of mankind's history, physical activity has 'pulled' appetite so that(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of exercise at different intensities on 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation. Sixteen adults (8 men and 8 women) were studied on three occasions [sedentary day (Con), a low-intensity exercise day (LI; 400 kcal at 40% of maximal oxygen consumption) and a high-intensity exercise day (HI; 400(More)
Metabolic adjustments occur with weight loss that may contribute to a high rate of weight regain. We have previously observed in obesity-prone, obese rats that weight reduction is accompanied by a suppression in resting metabolic rate beyond what would be predicted for the change in metabolic mass. In the present study, we examine if this adjustment in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if total calcium (Ca(2+)) intake and intake of Ca(2+) from dairy sources are related to whole-body fat oxidation. DESIGN : Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS A total of 35 (21 m, 14 f) non-obese, healthy adults (mean+/-s.d., age: 31+/-6 y; weight: 71.2+/-12.3 kg; BMI: 23.7+/-2.9 kg m(-2); body fat: 21.4+/-5.4%). MEASUREMENTS Daily(More)