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The cause of mental retardation in one-third to one-half of all affected individuals is unknown. Microscopically detectable chromosomal abnormalities are the most frequently recognized cause, but gain or loss of chromosomal segments that are too small to be seen by conventional cytogenetic analysis has been found to be another important cause. Array-based(More)
We used trio-based whole-exome sequencing to analyze two families affected by Weaver syndrome, including one of the original families reported in 1974. Filtering of rare variants in the affected probands against the parental variants identified two different de novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). Sanger sequencing of EZH2 in a third(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a neuropeptide highly expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance and body weight in rodents. We examined whether mutations in the two known MCH receptors might be associated with obesity-related phenotypes in humans. Among 106 subjects with severe early onset obesity(More)
BACKGROUND Jacobsen syndrome is a rare contiguous gene disorder that results from a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. It is typically characterized by intellectual disability, a variety of physical anomalies and a distinctive facial appearance. The 11q deletion has traditionally been identified by routine chromosome analysis. Array-based(More)
The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is crucial for energy homeostasis in mammals; mice and humans without it suffer from a voracious appetite and extreme obesity. The effect on energy balance of variations in plasma leptin above a minimal threshold is uncertain, however, particularly in humans. Here we examine a group of individuals who are genetically(More)
Congenital leptin deficiency is a rare, but treatable, cause of severe early-onset obesity. To date, two United Kingdom families of Pakistani origin carrying a frameshift/premature stop mutation, c.398delG (Delta133G), and one Turkish family carrying a missense mutation, c.313C>T (Arg(105)Trp), have been described. Affected subjects are homozygotes and(More)
Over the last few decades, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially n-6 PUFA, and monounsaturated fatty acid content in 'Western diets' has increased manyfold. Such a dietary shift also parallels rising sedentary behavior and diabetes in the Western world. We queried if a shift in dietary fats could be linked to physical inactivity and insulin(More)
METHODS AND RESULTS We identified de novo submicroscopic chromosome 14q11.2 deletions in two children with idiopathic developmental delay and cognitive impairment. Vancouver patient 5566 has a approximately 200 kb deletion and Vancouver patient 8326 has a approximately 1.6 Mb deletion. The Database of Chromosomal Imbalance and Phenotype in Humans using(More)
Huntington disease is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the Huntingtin (htt) protein. Wild-type htt has been shown to be involved in transcription, transport and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that increased expression of full-length wild-type htt in mice is associated with a(More)
The immunosuppressive agent mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has beneficial effects in cardiac transplant patients beyond the suppression of tissue rejection. Patients with regimens containing MMF experience diminished intimal thickening and cardiac allograft vasculopathy compared to patients treated with azathioprine. Studies have shown that diet-induced(More)