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Vertebrate vision is mediated by five groups of visual pigments, each absorbing a specific wavelength of light between ultraviolet and red. Despite extensive mutagenesis analyses, the mechanisms by which contemporary pigments absorb variable wavelengths of light are poorly understood. We show that the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of contemporary(More)
We studied specific yeast communities vectored by beetles, drosophilids, and bees that visit ephemeral flowers, mostly in the genus Hibiscus and in the families Convolvulaceae and Cactaceae, in the Neotropical, Nearctic, and Australian biogeographic regions. The communities consist mostly of yeasts in four clades centered around the genera Metschnikowia,(More)
Two new yeast species were isolated from flowers of Hibiscus species in Eastern and Northern Australia. Kodamaea kakaduensis is heterothallic, haploid, and similar to other Kodamaea species and to Candida restingae. Buds are often produced on short protuberances, and a true mycelium is formed. The new species differs from others by the assimilation of(More)
Yeast communities of decayingStenocereus gummosus were analyzed for spatial, temporal, and physiological characteristics. Analysis of random samples within plants, between plants, and between localities shows that the species proportions of the yeast community are relatively constant within plants and between localities, but that there is significant(More)
These studies report the existence of multiple forms of alcohol dehydrogenase in extracts of Drosophila mojavensis. The existence of these forms can be best explained by the hypothesis of a duplication for the Adh locus in D. mojavensis. Electrophoretic variants at each locus have been identified and crosses between individuals carrying alternative alleles(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the Adh region of Drosophila mojavensis has been completed and the region found to contain a pseudogene, Adh-2 and Adh-1 arranged in that order. Comparison of the sequence divergence of these genes to one another and to the Adh region of Drosophila mulleri and other species has allowed the development of a model for the evolution(More)
The mutualistic interactions of cactophilicDrosophila and their associated yeasts in the Sonoran Desert are studied as a system which has evolved within the framework of their host cactus stem chemistry. Because theDrosophila-yeast system is saphrophytic, their responses are not thought to directly influence the evolution of the host. Host cactus stem(More)
The killer phenomenon of yeasts was investigated in naturally occurring yeast communities. Yeast species from communities associated with the decaying stems and fruits of cactus and the slime fluxes of trees were studied for production of killer toxins and sensitivity to killer toxins produced by other yeasts. Yeasts found in decaying fruits showed the(More)
A survey was made of yeast species associated with the decaying pads of 3 prickly pear cacti (Opuntia phaeacantha, O. ficus-indica, andO. lindheimeri) in Arizona and Texas. Yeast communities from 12 localities were compared among localities, amongOpuntia species, and with previous data on yeast communities associated with columnar cacti. The results(More)