William T. Norton

Learn More
The cytotoxic effect of recombinant human cytokines was tested on glial cells cultured from mature bovine brain. Lymphotoxin (LT) and TNF induced injury to oligodendrocytes in a time and dose-dependent fashion. The other cytokines tested, IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-2, did not affect oligodendrocytes in culture over a 72-h observation period. None of the(More)
There is increasing evidence that the neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), play a role in the regulation of glial development in the CNS. Recent studies have shown that the proliferation of optic nerve-derived O2A progenitors (OLPs) is potentiated by NT-3 in combination with platelet-derived growth factor, whereas(More)
The cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome is a rare familial malady with cerebral, renal, and skeletal abnormalities, severe hypotonia, cirrhosis, iron and lipid storage, and death within 6 months. Correlated electron microscopic, histochemical, and biochemical studies demonstrate defects in two oxidative organelles. Peroxisomes cannot be found in hepatocytes and(More)
Brain injury induces reactive gliosis, characterized by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), astrocyte hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of astrocytes and microglia. One hypothesis tested in this study was whether ganglioside GD3+ glial precursor cells would contribute to macroglial proliferation following injury. Adult rats received a(More)
Primary astrocytes were cultured from forebrains of 1-day-old rats. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that approximately 80% of the cells were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and greater than 80% were stained with an antiserum to the molecular weight 58,000 fibroblast intermediate filament protein (vimentin). Gel electrophoresis of(More)
In inflammatory demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, myelin destruction occurs in the vicinity of infiltrating mononuclear cells. The observations that myelin can be altered prior to phagocytosis and in areas not contiguous with inflammatory cells suggests a common mechanism for the initial stages of(More)
Mechanisms involved in the loss of blood-brain barrier function in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were examined using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a tracer. In animals injected with HRP before fixation, tracer was observed in two intracytoplasmic compartments: multivesicular bodies (presumably secondary lysosomes) and(More)