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Hodological, electrophysiological, and ablation studies indicate a role for the basal forebrain in telencephalic vocal control; however, to date the organization of the basal forebrain has not been extensively studied in any nonmammal or nonhuman vocal learning species. To this end the chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain was investigated in a(More)
Interconnections of forebrain auditory and vocal control nuclei were mapped in the budgerigar using pathway tracing techniques. The anatomical results indicate four circuits by which auditory information may influence the vocal motor system: (1) direct auditory thalamic projections from nucleus dorsomedialis posterior (DMP) to both the neostriatal higher(More)
The connections of a higher order auditory area in the neostriatum intermedium pars ventrolateralis (NIVL) were mapped with pathway tracing techniques in order to elucidate possible pathways by which auditory feedback may influence vocal learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Previous research has shown that NIVL receives projections from(More)
Lesions were placed in either nucleus basalis (Bas) or the primary thalamorecipient portion of Field 'L' (i.e. centered in Field L2a) in budgerigars at 3-5 weeks posthatching and as adults. The calls of birds sustaining Bas lesions before fledging, or as adults, were markedly abnormal in that they showed little frequency modulation and individual(More)
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The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was mapped out in cells and fibers of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain. Special attention was given to vocal control and auditory nuclei because budgerigars are a psittacine species in which both males and females are capable of lifelong vocal learning (Farabaugh et al. [1994] J. Comp. Psychol(More)
The present study used histochemical methods to map the distributions of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the vocal control nuclei of a psittacine, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The distributions of ChAT and AChE in budgerigars appeared similar to that in oscine songbirds despite evidence that these systems(More)
The distribution of iron in the brain of a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), was examined using iron histochemistry. In mammals, iron is a highly specific stain for the dorsal and ventral pallidal subdivision as well as specific cell groups in the brainstem, including the substantia nigra pars reticulata [Neuroscience 11(More)
Budgerigars throughout life are capable of learning to produce many different sounds including those of human speech. Like humans, budgerigars use multiple craniomotor systems and coordinate both orosensory and auditory feedback in specialized forebrain nuclei. Although budgerigar auditory-vocal learning has a different evolutionary origin from that of(More)