William Sterling Hall

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Hodological, electrophysiological, and ablation studies indicate a role for the basal forebrain in telencephalic vocal control; however, to date the organization of the basal forebrain has not been extensively studied in any nonmammal or nonhuman vocal learning species. To this end the chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain was investigated in a(More)
Lesions were placed in either nucleus basalis (Bas) or the primary thalamorecipient portion of Field 'L' (i.e. centered in Field L2a) in budgerigars at 3-5 weeks posthatching and as adults. The calls of birds sustaining Bas lesions before fledging, or as adults, were markedly abnormal in that they showed little frequency modulation and individual(More)
Interconnections of forebrain auditory and vocal control nuclei were mapped in the budgerigar using pathway tracing techniques. The anatomical results indicate four circuits by which auditory information may influence the vocal motor system: (1) direct auditory thalamic projections from nucleus dorsomedialis posterior (DMP) to both the neostriatal higher(More)
The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was mapped out in cells and fibers of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain. Special attention was given to vocal control and auditory nuclei because budgerigars are a psittacine species in which both males and females are capable of lifelong vocal learning (Farabaugh et al. [1994] J. Comp. Psychol(More)
The connections of a higher order auditory area in the neostriatum intermedium pars ventrolateralis (NIVL) were mapped with pathway tracing techniques in order to elucidate possible pathways by which auditory feedback may influence vocal learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Previous research has shown that NIVL receives projections from(More)
The present study used histochemical methods to map the distributions of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the vocal control nuclei of a psittacine, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The distributions of ChAT and AChE in budgerigars appeared similar to that in oscine songbirds despite evidence that these systems(More)
The production of the cognitive internal state word know by four 2- to 5-year-old children and their parents was examined. The levels of meaning of cognitive words can be categorized hierarchically along the dimensions of conceptual difficulty and abstractness (see Booth & Hall, 1995). The present study found that children and their parents expressed low(More)
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In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to assess the effect of auditory stimulation with natural contact calls on expression of NR2A and NR2B NMDA subunit mRNAs in neurons of the thalamic auditory relay nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) of a vocal learning parrot species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The results showed that both the core (Ov) and(More)