William Spalding

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OBJECTIVE To evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal-related, and symptom-related healthcare costs among chronic constipation (CC) patients and estimate incremental all-cause healthcare costs of CC patients relative to matched controls. METHODS Patients aged ≥18 years with continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2010 were(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) is estimated to be between 4.3% and 5.2% among adults in the United States. Little is known about the health care resource utilization and costs associated with IBS-C. OBJECTIVES To (a) evaluate the annual total all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and IBS-C-related(More)
PURPOSE To describe and discuss short headache questionnaires, which can simplify and improve the diagnosis of migraine. DATA SOURCES Review of the worldwide scientific literature on short diagnostic questionnaires for migraine. CONCLUSIONS A new three-question Headache Screen addressing disability due to recurring headaches, headache duration, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To correlate the results of a new 3-question headache screen to 3 established methods of diagnosing migraine: the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria, physician's clinical impression, and presence of recurring disabling headaches. BACKGROUND A simple tool to recognize patients who experience migraine may facilitate diagnosis of(More)
Selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors have been associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic cardiovascular (CV) events. Prior studies have found that rofecoxib has a destabilizing effect on blood pressure; however, whether this translates to an increased risk of thromboembolic CV events is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this post hoc analysis was to compare the treatment effect size of eszopiclone 3 mg for insomnia in patients with a diagnosis of primary insomnia and in several of the psychiatric and medical conditions that are most commonly comorbid with insomnia. METHOD Data were analyzed from 5 large, multicenter, randomized, double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus (Staph) and Streptococcus (Strep) infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The economic burden of these infections is also significant, especially among hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate length of hospital stay (LOS) and total payments for hospital admissions for(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relative gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability of celecoxib and rofecoxib in elderly hypertensive patients with osteoarthritis (OA) with or without coadministration of low dose aspirin (ASA) (< or = 325 mg daily). METHODS Two independently conducted, multicenter, double blind, randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate GI(More)
Two 6-week studies compared the analgesic efficacy, tolerability and safety of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (celecoxib 200 mg twice a day [bid]) and an opioid (tramadol HCl 50 mg four times a day [qid]) in subjects with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Successful responders (primary endpoint) were defined as subjects completing 6 weeks of treatment(More)