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Plum pox virus (PPV) populations from peaches are able to adapt consistently to herbaceous hosts, characterized by a reduction in time to symptom development, increases in inoculation efficiency and increased titres. PPV adaptation was studied by using pea (Pisum sativum) as an alternative host. Two isolates of PPV from peaches were inoculated and passaged(More)
Plum pox virus (PPV), a destructive and economically devastating pathogen of Prunus species, was recently discovered in Pennsylvania and Canada. Current containment efforts involve eradication of infected trees based on ELISA surveys, which are laborious and less sensitive than PCR-based techniques. A real-time, fluorescent, reverse transcription-polymerase(More)
Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and(More)
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to analyze gene function in dicotyledonous plants but less so in monocotyledonous plants (particularly rice and corn), partially due to the limited number of virus expression vectors available. Here, we report the cloning and modification for VIGS of a virus from Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue) that(More)
Genetic bottlenecks may occur in virus populations when only a few individuals are transferred horizontally from one host to another, or when a viral population moves systemically from the infection site. Genetic bottlenecks during the systemic movement of an RNA plant virus population were reported previously (H. Li and M. J. Roossinck, J. Virol.(More)
A new medium designated Liber A has been designed and used to successfully cultivate all three 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.,' the suspect causative agents of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. The medium containing citrus vein extract and a growth factor sustained growth of 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' for four or five single-colony transfers before viability(More)
Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), first identified as an agricultural problem in Japan, has emerged as a growing problem in the Midwestern United States. The majority of research on SbDV had been limited to four lab maintained strains from Japan. SbDV had been found in clover in the eastern United States, but these isolates rarely emerged into soybeans. These(More)
Awareness of crop biosecurity and phytosanitation has been heightened since 9/11 and the unresolved anthrax releases in October 2001. Crops are highly vulnerable to accidental or deliberate introductions of crop pathogens from outside U.S. borders. Strategic thinking about protection against deliberate or accidental release of a plant pathogen is an urgent(More)
Plum pox virus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV. The Pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host(More)
The complete genome of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) was identified by small RNA sequencing utilizing leprosis-affected citrus samples collected from the state of Querétaro, Mexico. The nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that CiLV-N is very closely related to orchid fleck virus, which typically infects Cymbidium species.