William Samuel

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major agent in choroidal and retinal neovascularization, events associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), strategically located between retina and choroid, plays a critical role in retinal disorders. We have examined the effects of various(More)
Inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Our previous studies have shown that human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells, established from adult donor eyes, respond to inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the expression of a(More)
PURPOSE The inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The microRNAs miR-146a and miR-146b-5p can regulate the inflammatory process by attenuating cytokine signaling via the nuclear factor-κB pathway. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of(More)
PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many cellular functions due to their ability to target mRNAs for degradation or translational inhibition. Previous studies have reported that the expression of microRNA-9 (miR-9) is regulated by retinoic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have previously shown that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide(More)
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a regulatory enzyme involved in the synthesis of the monounsaturated fatty acids palmitoleate and oleate. The regulation of SCD is of physiological importance because the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids is thought to modulate membrane fluidity. Differential display analysis of retinal pigment(More)
The regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, is physiologically important because the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is thought to control cellular functions by modulating the structural integrity and fluidity of cell membranes. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta),(More)
ARPE-19, a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, has been widely used in studies of RPE function as well as gene expression. Here, we report the novel finding that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide), a synthetic retinoic acid derivative and a potential chemopreventive agent against cancer, induced the differentiation of ARPE-19 cells(More)
Activins, a subgroup of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, have been extensively studied in vertebrates for their roles in growth and development. However, activins are not thought to be expressed in invertebrates. The identification of the first invertebrate activin gene is reported here. A genomic clone representing 102 F region(More)
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR, fenretinide), a retinoic acid (RA) derivative and a potential cancer preventive agent, is known to exert its chemotherapeutic effects in cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. Earlier work from our laboratory has shown that relatively low concentrations of 4HPR induce neuronal differentiation of cultured human(More)
We have characterized NORPEG, a novel gene from human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), in which its expression is induced by all-trans-retinoic acid. Two transcripts ( approximately 3 and approximately 5 kilobases in size) have been detected for this gene, which is localized to chromosome band 5p13.2-13.3. Placenta and testis showed the highest(More)