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Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus likely contributes to learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying LTP at these synapses are not well understood, although phosphorylation and redistribution of AMPA receptors may be responsible for this form of synaptic plasticity. We show here that miniature excitatory(More)
Septins are GTPases required for the completion of cytokinesis in diverse organisms, yet their roles in cytokinesis or other cellular processes remain unknown. Here we describe studies of a newly identified septin, CDCrel-1, which is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. This protein was associated with membrane fractions, and a significant(More)
Existing data support the hypothesis that insulin triggers the exocytosis of small vesicles containing the GluT4 isoform of the glucose transporter. The data also suggest that these vesicles reform through endocytosis of GluT4. These processes resemble those described for synaptic vesicles after depolarization of nerve cells. To determine whether GluT4(More)
Phagocytosis involves the receptor-mediated extension of plasmalemmal protrusions, called pseudopods, which fuse at their tip to engulf a particle. Actin polymerizes under the nascent phagosome and may propel the protrusion of pseudopods. Alternatively, membrane extension could result from the localized insertion of intracellular membranes into the(More)
A hallmark of calcium-triggered synaptic transmission is the cooperative relationship between calcium and the amount of transmitter released. This relationship is thought to be important for improving the efficiency of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Although it is generally held that cooperativity arises from the interaction of multiple calcium ions with a(More)
Cytokinesis in animal cells involves the contraction of an actomyosin ring formed at the cleavage furrow. Nuclear division, or karyokinesis, must be precisely timed to occur before cytokinesis in order to prevent genetic anomalies that would result in either cell death or uncontrolled cell division. The septin family of GTPase proteins has been shown to be(More)
BACKGROUND Septins are members of a conserved family of GTPases found in organisms as diverse as budding yeast and mammals. In budding yeast, septins form hetero-oligomeric filaments that lie adjacent to the membrane at the mother-bud neck, whereas in mammals, they concentrate at the cleavage furrow of mitotic cells; in both cases, septins provide a(More)
The mechanisms controlling cytokinesis during yeast budding and animal cell fission appear quite different, yet both require members of the septin protein family. Mammalian homologs of this novel family of GTPases have been identified but little is known about their properties or functions. Using an antibody specific for the mammalian septin H5, we show(More)
Several proteins are associated with, or are integral components of, the lipid bilayer that forms the delineating membrane of neuronal synaptic vesicles. To characterize these molecules, we used a polyclonal antiserum raised against purified cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo to screen a cDNA expression library constructed from mRNA of the(More)
Phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils involves the spatial and temporal reorganisation of the actin-based cytoskeleton at sites of particle ingestion. Local polymerisation of actin filaments supports the protrusion of pseudopodia that eventually engulf the particle. Here we have investigated in detail the cytoskeletal events initiated upon engagement(More)