William S. Klug

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The elastic properties of capsids of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have been examined at pH 4.8 by nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope. Studies have been carried out on WT capsids, both empty and containing the RNA genome, and on full capsids of a salt-stable mutant and empty capsids of the subE mutant. Full capsids resisted(More)
We describe a sequence of methods to produce a partial differential equation model of the electrical activation of the ventricles. In our framework, we incorporate the anatomy and cardiac microstructure obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of a New Zealand White rabbit, the Purkinje structure and the Purkinje-muscle(More)
The role of atherosclerotic calcification in plaque rupture remains controversial. In previous analyses using finite element model analysis, circumferential stress was reduced by the inclusion of a calcium deposit in a representative human anatomical configuration. However, a recent report, also using finite element analysis, suggests that microscopic(More)
Cellular membranes are a heterogeneous mix of lipids, proteins and small molecules. Special groupings enriched in saturated lipids and cholesterol form liquid-ordered domains, known as "lipid rafts," thought to serve as platforms for signaling, trafficking and material transport throughout the secretory pathway. Questions remain as to how the cell maintains(More)
Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) nanoindentation experiments measuring mechanical response of the protein shells of viruses have provided a quantitative description of their strength and elasticity. To better understand and interpret these measurements, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, this paper adopts a course-grained modeling approach(More)
We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode(More)
The current rapid growth in the use of nanosized particles is fueled in part by our increased understanding of their physical properties and ability to manipulate them, which is essential for achieving optimal functionality. Here we report detailed quantitative measurements of the mechanical response of nanosized protein shells (viral capsids) to(More)
A series of recent nanoindentation experiments on the protein shells (capsids) of viruses has established atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a useful framework for probing the mechanics of large protein assemblies. Specifically these experiments provide an opportunity to study the coupling of the global assembly response to local conformational changes. AFM(More)
We study the numerical accuracy and computational efficiency of alternative formulations of the finite element solution procedure for the monodomain equations of cardiac electrophysiology, focusing on the interaction of spatial quadrature implementations with operator splitting and examining both nodal and Gauss quadrature methods and implementations that(More)