William S. Kessler

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[1] After early ideas that saw El Niños as isolated events, the advent of coupled models brought the conception of ENSO as a cycle in which each phase led to the next in a self-sustained oscillation. Twenty-two years of observations that represent the El Niño and La Niña peaks (east Pacific SST) and the memory of the system (zonal mean warm water volume)(More)
The tropical oceans have long been recognized as the most important region for large-scale ocean– atmosphere interactions, giving rise to coupled climate variations on several time scales. During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) decade, the focus of much tropical ocean research was on understanding El Niño–related processes and on development of(More)
High-resolution satellite observations are used to investigate air–sea interaction over the eastern Pacific warm pool. In winter, strong wind jets develop over the Gulfs of Tehuantepec, Papagayo, and Panama, accelerated by the pressure gradients between the Atlantic and Pacific across narrow passes of Central American cordillera. Patches of cold sea surface(More)
More than 5,000 km separates the frequently disturbed coral reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) from western sources of population replenishment. It has been hypothesized that El Niño events facilitate eastward dispersal across this East Pacific Barrier (EPB). Here we present a biophysical coral larval dispersal model driven by 14.5 years of(More)
In the southwest Pacific, thermocline waters connecting the tropics to the equator via western boundary currents (WBCs) transit through the Solomon Sea. Despite its importance in feeding the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and its related potential influence on the low-frequency modulation of ENSO, the circulation inside the Solomon Sea is poorly documented.(More)
The Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is generally not well simulated in numerical models. In this study, the causes of this problem are investigated by comparing model solutions to observed NECC estimates. The ocean model is a general circulation model of intermediate complexity. Solutions are forced by climatological and interannual wind(More)
Pacific Ocean western boundary currents and the interlinked equatorial Pacific circulation system were among the first currents of these types to be explored by pioneering oceanographers. The widely accepted but poorly quantified importance of these currents-in processes such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the(More)
Historical section data extending to 1985 are used to estimate the interannual variability of transport entering the Coral Sea between New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands. Typical magnitudes of this variability are 65–8 Sv (Sv [ 10 m s) in the 0–400-m layer relative to 400 m, and 68–12 Sv in the 0–2000-m layer relative to 2000 m, on a mean of close to230(More)
Velocity data from moored current meters is combined with satellite sea surface temperature (SST) to compute oceanic mixed layer temperature advection by Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs). For the years 2002 to 2005 it is found that this process heats the equatorial mixed layer at an annual mean rate of + 0.8 ◦C/month at 0◦N, 140◦W and + 2.8 ◦C/month at(More)