William S. Kessler

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The tropical oceans have long been recognized as the most important region for large-scale ocean– atmosphere interactions, giving rise to coupled climate variations on several time scales. During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) decade, the focus of much tropical ocean research was on understanding El Niño–related processes and on development of(More)
High-resolution satellite observations are used to investigate air–sea interaction over the eastern Pacific warm pool. In winter, strong wind jets develop over the Gulfs of Tehuantepec, Papagayo, and Panama, accelerated by the pressure gradients between the Atlantic and Pacific across narrow passes of Central American cordillera. Patches of cold sea surface(More)
The Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is generally not well simulated in numerical models. In this study, the causes of this problem are investigated by comparing model solutions to observed NECC estimates. The ocean model is a general circulation model of intermediate complexity. Solutions are forced by climatological and interannual wind(More)
More than 5,000 km separates the frequently disturbed coral reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) from western sources of population replenishment. It has been hypothesized that El Niño events facilitate eastward dispersal across this East Pacific Barrier (EPB). Here we present a biophysical coral larval dispersal model driven by 14.5 years of(More)
Pacific Ocean western boundary currents and the interlinked equatorial Pacific circulation system were among the first currents of these types to be explored by pioneering oceanographers. The widely accepted but poorly quantified importance of these currents-in processes such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the(More)
In 1982-83, the unobserved El Niño caught the community by surprise and led to the establishment of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. The crowning achievement of TOGA was deploying the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the equatorial Pacific to provide real-time ocean and atmosphere observations for improving ENSO predictions. The(More)
We would like to invite the CLIVAR community to submit CLIVAR related papers to CLIVAR Exchanges for the next issue. The deadline for submission is 31st August 2008 Guidelines for the submission of papers for CLIVAR Exchanges can be found CLIVAR is an international research programme dealing with climate variability and predictability on timescales from(More)
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