William S. James

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BACKGROUND Severe forms of dengue, the most important arboviral infection of man, are associated with haemorrhagic disease and a generalised vascular leak syndrome. The importance of dengue as a cause of neurological disease is uncertain. METHODS During 1995, all patients with suspected CNS infections admitted to a referral hospital in southern Vietnam(More)
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a major global health threat and understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of HIV replication is critical for the development of novel therapeutics. To replicate, HIV-1 must access the nucleus of infected cells and integrate into host chromosomes, however little is known about the events occurring post-nuclear entry but before(More)
We have isolated artificial ligands or aptamers for infectious prions in order to investigate conformational aspects of prion pathogenesis. The aptamers are 2'-fluoro-modified RNA produced by in vitro selection from a large, randomized library. One of these ligands (aptamer SAF-93) had more than 10-fold higher affinity for PrPSc than for recombinant PrPC(More)
Three laboratory strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were established by mating of field-collected insects with an existing insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain. These strains were cultured on artificial diet containing the Cry1Ac protoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis using three different protocols. When no response to selection was detected after(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop a simple and efficient method for producing homogeneous populations of monocytes and macrophages from human embryonic stem cells (hES). MATERIALS AND METHODS Human embryonic stem cell lines KCL001, KCL002, and HUES-2 were differentiated into monocytes by coculture-free differentiation with two growth factors using a three-step method.(More)
During the past 40 years, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) have emerged in humans, with approximately 3 million cases reported and over 58 000 deaths. Dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 4 (DENV-1, -2 and -4) have been co-circulating in Venezuela for at least the past 10 years, causing minor or major outbreaks of dengue fever (DF)(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved a number of strategies to resist current antiretroviral drugs and the selection pressures of humoral and cellular adaptive immunity. For example, R5 strains, which use the CCR5 coreceptor for entry and are the dominant viral phenotype for HIV-1 transmission and AIDS pathogenesis, are relatively(More)
Macrophages are an important natural target cell for HIV-1, but previous studies of virus entry into these cells are limited, and the involvement of membrane cholesterol and lipid rafts is unknown. Cholesterol disruption of macrophage membranes using four pharmacological agents acting by different mechanisms: methyl-beta cyclodextrin, nystatin, filipin(More)
Heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) represent the strongest common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. Here, we have analyzed ten independent induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)(More)
OX40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor/nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor superfamily was first identified as a marker of activated rat CD4+ cells with the MRC OX40 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A ligand for OX40 (called OX40 ligand or OX40L) has recently been identified and has sequence similarity to TNF. Mouse OX40L-immunoglobulin fusion(More)