William S. Blaner

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BACKGROUND Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a major fibrogenic cell type that contributes to collagen accumulation during chronic liver disease. With increasing interest in developing antifibrotic therapies, there is a need for cell lines that preserve the in vivo phenotype of human HSCs to elucidate pathways of human hepatic fibrosis. We established and(More)
The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) along the luminal surface of the capillaries. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates chylomicron processing by LpL has not yet been defined. Here, we show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) plays a(More)
Hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells play important roles in retinoid storage and metabolism. Hepatocytes process postprandial retinyl esters and are responsible for secretion of retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP) to maintain plasma retinol levels. Stellate cells are the body's major cellular storage sites for retinoid. We have characterized(More)
Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol (vitamin A) in the circulation, and its single known function is to deliver retinol to tissues. Within tissues, retinol is activated to retinoic acid, which binds to nuclear receptors to regulate transcription of >300 diverse target genes. In the eye, retinol is also activated(More)
Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is believed to be the predominant if not the sole enzyme in the body responsible for the physiologic esterification of retinol. We have studied Lrat-deficient (Lrat-/-) mice to gain a better understanding of how these mice take up and store dietary retinoids and to determine whether other enzymes may be responsible(More)
We studied 115 patients (69 men, 46 women) with chronic renal failure (CRF) aged younger than 70 years close to the start of dialysis therapy to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and study the relationship between various nutritional parameters in these patients. Nutritional status was classified by means of subjective global assessment. Anthropometric(More)
Adipose tissue has been reported to contain relatively high levels of the specific mRNA for retinol-binding protein (RBP) (Makover A., Soprano, D.R., Wyatt, M. L., and Goodman, D.S. (1989) J. Lipid Res. 30, 171-180). Studies were conducted to explore retinoid and retinoid-binding protein storage and metabolism in adipose tissue. In these studies, we(More)
Over the past several years, discoveries from mouse genetics have had direct impact on our understanding of vitamin A metabolism. Although the metabolism of vitamin A in the mouse does have some special features (for example very large stores of liver and pulmonary retinyl esters), the ability to construct knockout and transgenic mouse models has yielded an(More)
Insulin signaling in osteoblasts has been shown recently to contribute to whole-body glucose homeostasis in animals fed a normal diet; however, it is unknown whether bone contributes to the insulin resistance that develops in animals challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we evaluated the consequences of osteoblast-specific overexpression of or loss of(More)
Hepatic steatosis is often associated with insulin resistance and obesity and can lead to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. In this study, we have demonstrated that hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), two enzymes critical for lipolysis in adipose tissues, also contribute to lipolysis in the liver and can mobilize hepatic(More)