William S. Ball

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Although much is known concerning brain-language relations in adults, little is known about how these functions might be represented during the developmental period. We report results from 17 normal children, ages 7-18 years, who have successfully completed a word fluency paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Regions of(More)
Relaxation time measurements at 3.0 T are reported for both gray and white matter in normal human brain. Measurements were made using a 3.0 T Bruker Biospec magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner in normal adults with no clinical evidence of neurological disease. Nineteen subjects, 8 female and 11 male, were studied for T1 and T2 measurements, and 7 males(More)
We report the first X-linked creatine-deficiency syndrome caused by a defective creatine transporter. The male index patient presented with developmental delay and hypotonia. Proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy of his brain revealed absence of the creatine signal. However, creatine in urine and plasma was increased, and guanidinoacetate levels were(More)
Recent reports highlight the utility of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques to recognize creatine deficiency syndromes affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Reported cases demonstrate partial reversibility of neurologic symptoms upon restoration of CNS creatine levels with the administration of oral creatine. We describe a patient(More)
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms in childhood are rare. To date, 67 well-documented cases in children have been reported. We present 2 additional cases and review the literature. Traumatic aneurysms can best be categorized based on mechanism of injury and location. Aneurysms secondary to penetrating trauma occur most commonly in teenage boys suffering(More)
PURPOSE We describe imaging features that are clues to the diagnosis of atretic cephaloceles and discuss clinical findings and a possible mechanism by which these lesions develop. METHODS Eight children (five girls and three boys) ranging in age from 1 day to 3 years 4 months with midline subscalp lesions underwent radiologic examination with CT or MR(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows non-invasive assessment of human brain function in vivo by detecting blood flow differences. In this review, we want to illustrate the background and different aspects of performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the pediatric age group. An overview over current and future applications of(More)
We describe the clinical manifestations, associated abnormalities, MRI appearances and pathologic significance of a case of hypophyseal duplication. A 16-year-old girl presented with delayed sexual development and history of midline craniofacial anomalies. MRI revealed paired infundibula extending inferiorly to two small pituitary glands, a midline(More)
Cystic or cyst-like malformations of the posterior fossa represent a spectrum of disorders, including the Dandy-Walker malformation, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia, mega cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst. Differentiation of these lesions may be difficult with routine cross-sectional imaging; however, an accurate diagnosis is essential for proper treatment(More)