Learn More
Biomethylation is considered a major detoxification pathway for inorganic arsenicals (iAs). According to the postulated metabolic scheme, the methylation of iAs yields methylated metabolites in which arsenic is present in both pentavalent and trivalent forms. Pentavalent mono- and dimethylated arsenicals are less acutely toxic than iAs. However, little is(More)
Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. We measured mRNA cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in target brain regions from low (n = 12) or highly exposed(More)
Mexico City children are chronically exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants and exhibit chronic respiratory-tract inflammation. Epidemiological, controlled human exposures, laboratory-based animal models, and in vitro/in vivo studies have shown that inflammatory, endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage mediators are upregulated upon(More)
The CATERPILLER (CLR, also NOD and NLR) proteins share structural similarities with the nucleotide binding domain (NBD)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily of plant disease-resistance (R) proteins and are emerging as important immune regulators in animals. CLR proteins contain NBD-LRR motifs and are linked to a limited number of distinct N-terminal(More)
Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities(More)
Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the lung to(More)
Exposure to zinc-laden particulate matter in ambient and occupational settings has been associated with proinflammatory responses in the lung. IL-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung and is induced in human airway epithelial cells exposed to zinc. In this study, we examined the cellular mechanisms responsible for Zn(2+)-induced IL-8(More)
The tumor suppressor PTEN is a putative negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Exposure to Zn2+ ions induces Akt activation, suggesting that PTEN may be modulated in this process. Therefore, the effects of Zn2+ on PTEN were studied in human airway epithelial cells and rat lungs. Treatment with Zn2+ resulted in a significant(More)
We have previously shown that in vitro exposure to metallic compounds enhances expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human bronchial epithelial cells. To characterize signaling pathways involved in metal-induced expression of inflammatory mediators and to identify metals that activate them, we studied the effects of As,(More)
Airway epithelial cells respond to certain environmental stresses by mounting a proinflammatory response, which is characterized by enhanced synthesis and release of the neutrophil chemotactic and activating factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in part by the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB.(More)