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Biomethylation is considered a major detoxification pathway for inorganic arsenicals (iAs). According to the postulated metabolic scheme, the methylation of iAs yields methylated metabolites in which arsenic is present in both pentavalent and trivalent forms. Pentavalent mono- and dimethylated arsenicals are less acutely toxic than iAs. However, little is(More)
We have previously shown that in vitro exposure to metallic compounds enhances expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human bronchial epithelial cells. To characterize signaling pathways involved in metal-induced expression of inflammatory mediators and to identify metals that activate them, we studied the effects of As,(More)
Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the lung to(More)
Exposure to zinc-laden particulate matter in ambient and occupational settings has been associated with proinflammatory responses in the lung. IL-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung and is induced in human airway epithelial cells exposed to zinc. In this study, we examined the cellular mechanisms responsible for Zn(2+)-induced IL-8(More)
Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. We measured mRNA cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in target brain regions from low (n = 12) or highly exposed(More)
Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities(More)
Fine particles in the air have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Particulate air pollution is a complex mixture which varies by region and includes a number of components including residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a byproduct of power plant and industry fuel-oil combustion. Human airway epithelial cells exposed to ROFA release inflammatory(More)
We have studied the response of erosive or ulcerative esophagitis to treatment with omeprazole and its subsequent relapse on cessation of therapy in 196 patients. In the first phase of the study omeprazole (20 or 40 mg daily) was compared with placebo in 64 patients. After 4 wk there was endoscopic healing in 81% (25 of 31) of omeprazole-treated patients(More)
Acute, subchronic, or chronic exposures to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gases affect people in urban areas and those exposed to fires, disasters, and wars. Respiratory tract inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain, systemic circulation of PM, and disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers(More)
The coexistence of densely packed microtubule- and microfilament-based elements in the apex of ciliated epithelial cells, such as the lateral (L) cells of freshwater mussel gill, suggests that with this system it may be possible to define structural connections and interactions that permit integrated cytoskeletal responses to known physiological stimuli. In(More)