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Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the lung to(More)
BACKGROUND Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to(More)
Fine particles in the air have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Particulate air pollution is a complex mixture which varies by region and includes a number of components including residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a byproduct of power plant and industry fuel-oil combustion. Human airway epithelial cells exposed to ROFA release inflammatory(More)
Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to levels of particulate pollution has been(More)
BACKGROUND RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a powerful methodology recently developed for the specific knockdown of targeted genes. RNAi is most commonly achieved either transiently by transfection of small interfering (si) RNA oligonucleotides, or stably using short hairpin (sh) RNA expressed from a DNA vector or virus. Much controversy has surrounded(More)
Two experiments involving White participants tested the influence of media-based priming of Black stereotypes on support for government policy that assisted Black versus White persons-in-need. Experiment 1 showed that priming the "Black criminal" stereotype through exposure to photographs of Blacks looting after Hurricane Katrina reduced policy support for(More)
We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of(More)
We describe the design, construction, and application of what are believed to be the smallest fiber-optic probes used to date during imaging or diagnosis involving low-coherence interferometry (LCI). The probes use novel fiber-optic gradient-index (GRIN) lenses fabricated by a recently developed modified chemical-vapor-deposition (MCVD) process that avoids(More)
The most conspicuous evidence of airway epithelial maturation and vitality is the presence of motile cilia. In an effort to generate genetic and antigenic markers of airway maturation, injury, and repair, we characterized airway epithelial expression of a gene identified by two human expressed sequence tags that encoded peptides with sequence similarity to(More)
Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and subsequent proinflammatory gene expression in human airway epithelial cells can be evoked by oxidative stress. In this study we examined signal transduction pathways activated by vanadyl sulfate (V(IV))-induced oxidative stress in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Both nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB(More)