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Synchronized low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations of the functional MRI (fMRI) signal have recently been applied to investigate large-scale neuronal networks of the brain in the absence of specific task instructions. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of these fluctuations remain largely unknown. To this end, electrophysiological recordings and(More)
Dynamic manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) detects neuronal activity based on the passage of Mn(2+) into active neurons. Because this mechanism is independent of any hemodynamic response, it is potentially ideal for pharmacological studies and was applied to investigate the acute CNS effects of cocaine in the rat. Dose-dependent,(More)
The value of analyzing neuroimaging data on a group level has been well established in human studies. However, there is no standard procedure for registering and analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data into common space in rodent fMRI studies. An approach for performing rat imaging data analysis in the stereotaxic framework is presented.(More)
Chronic drug administration induces neuroplastic changes within brain circuits regulating cognitive control and/or emotions. Following repeated pairings between drug intake and environmental cues, increased sensitivity to or salience of these contextual cues provoke conscious or unconscious craving and enhance susceptibility to relapse. To explore brain(More)
Previous preclinical studies have emphasized that drugs of abuse, through actions within and between mesocorticolimbic (MCL) regions, usurp learning and memory processes normally involved in the pursuit of natural rewards. To distinguish MCL circuit pathobiological neuroadaptations that accompany addiction from general learning processes associated with(More)
Manganese (Mn(2+)) has limited permeability through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Opening the BBB such that a sufficient amount of Mn(2+) enters the extracellular space is a critical step for dynamic manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ME-MRI) experiments. The traditional BBB opening method uses intracarotid hyperosmolar stress which results in(More)
Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors(More)
It is generally assumed that infralimbic cortex (ILC) and prelimbic cortex, two adjacent areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents, provide selective excitatory glutamatergic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, respectively. It is also generally believed that mPFC influences the extracellular levels of dopamine in the NAc(More)
Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the(More)
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a powerful technique for assessing the functional connectivity of neurons within the central nervous system. Despite the widely held proposition that MEMRI signal is dependent on neuronal activity, few studies have directly tested this implicit hypothesis. In the present series of experiments, MnCl2(More)