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We obtain an analytic solution for the generation of internal gravity waves by tidal flow past a vertical barrier of height b in a uniformly stratified ocean of depth h > b and buoyancy frequency N. The radiated power (watts per metre of barrier) is 1 4 πρ 0 b 2 U 2 N 1 − (f/ω) 2 M(b/ h), where ρ 0 is the mean density of seawater, U cos(ωt) the tidal… (More)

Using linear wave theory, the rate at which energy is converted into internal gravity waves by the interaction of the barotropic tide with topography in an ocean is calculated. Bell's formula for the conversion rate is extended to the case of an ocean of finite depth H with weak two-dimensional topography h(x, y) and arbitrary buoyancy frequency N(z).… (More)

Zonostrophic instability leads to the spontaneous emergence of zonal jets on a b plane from a jetless basic-state flow that is damped by bottom drag and driven by a random body force. Decomposing the barotropic vorticity equation into the zonal mean and eddy equations, and neglecting the eddy–eddy interactions, defines the quasilinear (QL) system. Numerical… (More)

The eddy heat flux generated by statistically equilibrated baro-clinic turbulence supported on a uniform, horizontal temperature gradient is examined using a two-layer β-plane quasigeostrophic model. The dependence of the eddy diffusivity of temperature, D τ , on external parameters such as β, bottom friction κ, the deformation radius λ and the velocity… (More)

The radiative flux of internal wave energy (the " tidal conversion ") powered by the oscillating flow of a uniformly stratified fluid over a two-dimensional submarine ridge is computed using an integral-equation method. The problem is characterized by two nondimensional parameters, A and B. The first parameter, A, is the ridge half-width scaled by h, where… (More)

- William Young, Matthew Rodger, Cathy M Craig
- Journal of experimental psychology. Human…
- 2013

Many studies have examined the processes involved in recognizing types of human action through sound, but little is known about whether the physical characteristics of an action (such as kinetic and kinematic parameters) can be perceived and imitated from sound. Twelve young healthy adults listened to recordings of footsteps on a gravel path taken from… (More)

The eddy heat flux generated by the statistically equilibrated baroclinic instability of a uniform, horizontal temperature gradient is studied using a two-mode f-plane quasigeostrophic model. An overview of the dependence of the eddy diffusivity D on the bottom friction , the deformation radius , the vertical variation of the large-scale flow U, and the… (More)

- A. J. MANFROI, W. R. YOUNG
- 1997

The authors study the stability of a barotropic sinusoidal meridional flow on a  plane. Because of bottom drag and lateral viscosity, the system is dissipative and forcing maintains a basic-state velocity that carries fluid across the planetary vorticity contours; this is a simple model of forced potential vorticity mixing. When the Reynolds number is… (More)

Analytical estimates of the rate at which energy is extracted from the barotropic tide at topography and converted into internal gravity waves are given. The ocean is idealized as an inviscid, vertically unbounded fluid on the f plane. The gravity waves are treated by linear theory and freely escape to z ϭ ϱ. Several topographies are investigated: a… (More)

- William Young, Stuart Ferguson, Sébastien Brault, Cathy Craig
- Gait & posture
- 2011

Older adults, deemed to be at a high risk of falling, are often unable to participate in dynamic exercises due to physical constraints and/or a fear of falling. Using the Nintendo 'Wii Balance Board' (WBB) (Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan), we have developed an interface that allows a user to accurately calculate a participant's centre of pressure (COP) and… (More)