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An efficient means for generating mutation data matrices from large numbers of protein sequences is presented here. By means of an approximate peptide-based sequence comparison algorithm, the set sequences are clustered at the 85% identity level. The closest relating pairs of sequences are aligned, and observed amino acid exchanges tallied in a matrix. The(More)
This paper describes a new method for the prediction of the secondary structure and topology of integral membrane proteins based on the recognition of topological models. The method employs a set of statistical tables (log likelihoods) complied from well-characterized membrane protein data, and a novel dynamic programming algorithm to recognize membrane(More)
Polycomb group proteins have an essential role in the epigenetic maintenance of repressive chromatin states. The gene-silencing activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) depends on its ability to trimethylate lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) by the catalytic SET domain of the EZH2 subunit, and at least two other subunits of the complex: SUZ12 and(More)
1. Cells in the ganglion cell layer of salamander retinal slices were voltage clamped using patch pipettes. Light elicited transient excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in on-off ganglion cells and sustained EPSCs in on ganglion cells. Light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in these cells could be blocked by 100 microM-bicuculline methobromide(More)
In spiking neurons, phasic, calcium-dependent transmitter release is initiated when a presynaptic action potential activates voltage-dependent calcium channels. Vertebrate photoreceptors are nonspiking neurons that continuously release transmitter. This study uses patch-clamp recording to examine the electrophysiological properties of mammalian cones in(More)
1. The conductance and kinetics of single 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-activated channels of retinal rod outer segments were studied in inside-out membrane patches. The size of the single channel currents was increased by using low concentrations of divalent cations. 2. At saturating cGMP concentration, the current flickered at high(More)
Direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) in the retina respond strongly when stimulated by image motion in a preferred direction but are only weakly excited by image motion in the opposite null direction. Such coding represents an early manifestation of complex information processing in the visual system, but the cellular locus and the synaptic mechanisms(More)
Voltage-clamp and current-clamp recordings were made from bipolar cells in dark-adapted mouse retinal slices. Light-evoked responses fell into three groups corresponding to the rod bipolar cells, on-cone bipolar cells and off-cone bipolar cells. The morphology of the recorded cells confirmed this classification. Intensity-response relations were well fitted(More)
1. Photosensitivities of visual pigments were determined by measuring early receptor currents (ERCs) in voltage-clamped photoreceptors from larval salamanders. 2. As expected from previous work of others, the ERC elicited by a brief flash consisted of a rapid inward component followed by a larger and slower outward component. The magnitude of the outward(More)