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To properly formulate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments with complex mental activity, it is advantageous to permit great flexibility in the statistical components of the design of these studies. The length of an experiment, the placement of various stimuli and the modeling approach used all affect the ability to detect mental… (More)

One of the most basic topics in many introductory statistical methods texts is inference for a population mean, µ. The primary tool for confidence intervals and tests is the Student t sampling distribution. Although the derivation requires independent identically distributed normal random variables with constant variance, σ 2 , most authors reassure the… (More)

Disagreement between the Talairach atlas and the stereotaxic space commonly used in software like SPM is a widely recognized problem. Others have proposed affine transformations to improve agreement in surface areas such as Brodmann's areas. This article proposes a similar transformation with the goal of improving agreement specifically in the deep brain… (More)

Proportional scaling models are often used in functional imaging studies to remove confounding of local signals by global effects. It is generally assumed that global effects are uncorrelated with experimental conditions. However, when the global effect is estimated by the global signal, defined as the intracerebral average, incorrect inference may result… (More)

Several case definitions of chronic illness in veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War have been linked epidemiologically with environmental exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting chemicals, which cause chronic changes in cholinergic receptors in animal models. Twenty-one chronically ill Gulf War veterans (5 with symptom complex 1, 11 with complex 2, and 5… (More)

In this paper we compare the properties of four different general approaches for testing the ratio of two Poisson rates. Asymptotically normal tests, tests based on approximate p -values, exact conditional tests, and a likelihood ratio test are considered. The properties and power performance of these tests are studied by a Monte Carlo simulation… (More)

SUMMARY An introduction to nonparametric regression is accomplished with selected real data sets, statistical graphics, and simulations from known functions. It is pedagogically effective for many to have some initial intuition about what the techniques are and why they work. Visual displays of small examples along with the plots of several types of… (More)

When estimating the power of genetic association studies, the allele and genotype frequencies are often assumed to be known, and the numbers of individuals with each genotype are set equal to their expectations under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In fact, both allele and genotype frequencies are unknown and thus random. It has previously been suggested that… (More)

We propose a test, like the classical sign test, of whether the probability of an event differs from 0.5 that is appropriate with clustered binary data. It combines a permutation approach and an exact parametric bootstrap calculation. Simulation studies show it to be superior to a sign test based on aggregated cluster level data. The new test is more… (More)