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Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT(More)
Our previous in vitro studies with both isolated organelles and primary neuronal cell cultures found that intracellular signal transduction can be perturbed by some noncoplanar PCBs at exposure levels of </=10 microM. However, it is not clear whether such concentrations are achievable in brain in vivo. Also, the pattern of congener disposition and(More)
Synaptogenesis is a critical process in nervous system development whereby neurons establish specialized contact sites which facilitate neurotransmission. Early life exposure to chemicals can result in persistent deficits in nervous system function at later life stages. These effects are often the result of abnormal development of synapses. Given the large(More)
Identification of chemicals that pose a hazard to the developing nervous system is the first step in reducing human exposure and preventing health risks to infants and children. In response to the need for more efficient methods to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants, the present study evaluated the utility of an automated high content screening(More)
This is the report of the first workshop on Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies, held in Ispra, Italy, on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by(More)
There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants.(More)
Throughout development neurons undergo a number of morphological changes including neurite outgrowth from the cell body. Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals that interfere with this process may result in permanent deficits in nervous system function. Traditionally, rodent primary neural cultures and immortalized human and non-human clonal cell lines have been(More)
A number of recent studies have examined the neurotoxic actions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using in vitro cell culture models. However, there are few data reporting the final concentration of PBDEs in cells after in vitro exposure to these compounds. To address this issue, the present study examined the concentration-dependent and(More)
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and resultant oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanism of brain dysfunction due to age-related neurodegenerative diseases or exposure to environmental chemicals. We have investigated intrinsic age-related differences in the ability of the various brain regions to generate ROS in the absence and(More)
The effect of hippocampal dynorphin administration on learning and memory was examined in spatial and nonspatial tasks. Bilateral infusion of dynorphin A(1-8) (DYN; 10 or 20 micrograms in one microliters) into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in a dose-related impairment of spatial working memory in a radial maze win-stay task. Subsequent experiments found(More)